A TIRED PUPPY IS A HAPPY PUPPY…OR IS HE?

Originally published April 2013

One of the platitudes we hear over and over and over again in dog training is that a tired puppy is a happy puppy.  When I think about being tired, I think about that feeling of having lots to do and not enough time to get it done, of deadlines, of the desire to do more but the inability to do so.  Or I think about the end of a work out, where I just want a shower and to be left alone.  I don’t think about tired when I think about content.

Don’t get me wrong.  Exercise is an important component of good health for both us and our dogs.  Reasonable amounts of exercise that is.  Yesterday I took my horse out to exercise her and she was very full of herself.  We went to a new area to her, and I got out my longe line and asked her to walk in a circle around me.  This is a very common way of exercising horses and my mare is very familiar with it.  In a new place though she was very spooky and nervous and when a truck rumbled by and blew its horn she took off.  She galloped around me for a solid ten minutes, and that was before we even got really organized.  After her spook, I worked her in the other direction so that she would not get stiff on one side, and then I walked her for about twenty minutes to make sure she would be properly cooled out.  With horses we have to be very careful about keeping them properly limbered and properly warmed up and cooled out and when a spook like this happens we often end up exercising a horse more than we would prefer.  At the end of her work out, Kayak was very tired.

Today when I brought Kayak out for her daily work out, she was very subdued.  She was loose and moving well, but she was obviously tired out from yesterday’s work-out.  Today I worked her very lightly because although a tired horse can be an easier to handle horse, a tired horse is also a horse more prone to injuries.  This is true of all athletes, horse, human and yes, dog.

Often when I talk to people about the behaviour problems they are having, an interesting pattern has developed for the dog.  As a young pup, the people would see the puppy get the zoomies and thinking that their puppy needed an extra walk, they would take the puppy out for progressively longer walks.  Very quickly, the zoomies move out of the realm of an emotional response to being over tired to an operant way to get more walks.  It takes very little time for a dog to learn that racing around results in a walk.

As the puppy grows, so does his stamina and then next thing that often happens is that the puppy develops a lot of stamina.  A young Australian Shepherd is perfectly able to run hard for most of the day, regardless of the effect on his future health.  This is an active breed that was intended to move large numbers of sheep for hours on end.  The race between stamina and the amount of exercise that a young dog can absorb becomes a vicious circle where the human gives the dog exercise, and then the dog is naughty and the human gives the dog more exercise.  It is not just herding dogs like the Aussie either; I have seen this happen in spaniels, retrievers, and working breeds.  If your dog comes from a genetic background where he needed to be active, then the more exercise you give him, the more exercise he seems to need.  Furthermore, if you have been exercising your dog whenever he seems restless, you are inadvertently creating a dog who will need more and more and more exercise.

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Attempting to exercise a dog into fatigue who was bred to do this for ten hours a day is an exercise in frustration for families, but likely also for their dogs.  Copyright: <a href=’http://www.123rf.com/profile_kitzcorner’>kitzcorner / 123RF Stock Photo</a>

Often the next stop on the journey of exercise junkie is dog day care.  There are great dog day cares out there, where the dogs have structured days that include rest periods and down time, but a great many dog day cares are one revolving door of activity, activity, activity.  One of my clients came in after his dog was dismissed from daycare because he was aggressive to the other dogs.  The daycare would not permit a video to be made to determine what exactly was going on, however from what we can determine, the dog would arrive around 7 am and more and more dogs would arrive until about 10 in the morning.  As the dogs arrived they were permitted to race into the day care and plough into the play group.  From ten till about two in the afternoon, these dogs would be a more or less stable group, but any time they settled down to rest, a staffer would go out and get them moving.  At two in the afternoon, dogs would start going home.  By five when my client would pick up his dog, his dog was exhausted.  When we added this dog to our play group, it was really clear that he didn’t mind rough play at first, but over time, as he tired, he would begin to build a bigger and bigger space bubble around him.  By keeping his play sessions short and not permitting him to play when he was tired we resolved a good chunk of this dog’s problem.

The allure of the dog coming home tired is very attractive to many owners of young dogs, but if the day care doesn’t make sure that the dog gets down time and rest time, then you can be contributing to a dog becoming an exercise junkie.  This leaves us with two questions.  The first is “How much is enough” and the second is “When should you exercise the dog”?

The answer to how much is enough is completely dependent on how much you think you can live with.  If you cannot live with a dog who needs 5 hours of hard exercise a day, then don’t start building up your dog’s exercise tolerance to that level.  I have a colleague in Sudbury who is extremely active with her dogs; she does sledding and hiking and biking with her dogs, and she could live with dogs who are able to tolerate five hours a day of hard exercise.  This is not typical of my students though.  If you cannot tolerate this level of exercise, then don’t get your dog up to that exercise.

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When a dog starts exercising stressed, he is going to also be stressed during exercise at least for the first while.  Look at this guys’ rounded eyes, pulled back ears and pulled in tongue.

There is a minimum though; dogs do best with at least an hour a day of off leash hiking with their people.  Not all of us have the luxury of this, but that is likely the optimal for most dogs and it is doable for more folks, so as a middle of the road guide line, an hour a day off leash is a good amount of exercise.  When you cannot give your dog this, you can substitute things like walking (not bounding!) up and down stairs, training games that involve searching for specific items or treats or learning new tasks.

The second question of when to exercise your dog is an interesting one.  If you exercise your dog at the same time each and every day, you will create a situation where your dog anticipates exercise and becomes difficult to handle because of that.  As the moment of exercise approaches, the dog becomes increasingly aroused and excited.  If you then exercise your dog he will learn that being excited and aroused predicts a walk.  When nothing else is going on, he will behave in an excited manner and then you will eventually respond by giving him that walk.  Although you may be planning your walk at a specific time, your dog may begin to think that his excitement is what produces the walk instead of the other way around.

On the other hand, if you walk your dog more or less randomly, he will begin to tune into your subtle cues that a walk is coming and you have exactly the same issue that you might in the event that you walk your dog at the same time every day.  Putting down your reading glasses and picking up your phone means that you are going to go for that greatly anticipated walk.

To avoid these common walk problems, there are a few things to do.  First, understand that puppies under 12 weeks who zoom around like small jets are probably tired and need a nap, not another walk.  When you see this behaviour, call your pup, put him in his crate with a kong or other appropriate chew and let him be for a while.  After twelve weeks you can start to give your puppy more exercise and start to build towards a level of stamina you can live with, while meeting his minimum needs for exercise.  If you have an older dog who has the pre-walk fidgets, use that as an indicator that you need to crate him till he settles down too.  When the dog is settled, you can take him out if appropriate.  We find that most young dogs conk out pretty quickly and take a nap.  Older dogs can learn that being silly and excited in the crate does not open the door.

Once you have broken the cycle of being excited and aroused before the walk, establish a routine before your walk.  Start out by teaching your dog to lie down.  Lying down is a calm and controlled position.  When your dog is down, feed him treats, one by one and then work on being able to move around the room, while he stays.  If he breaks the stay, just re-cue him and work with him on staying in a down position for ten minutes.  At about the ten minute point (sometimes 9, sometimes 10, or even 11 minutes), call your dog out of the down position and go get ready for your walk.  Work up to being able to get ready for the walk while your dog is down.  If he gets tense or excited (you will notice ears and eyes perking up), then keep working on the stay, continuously feeding as you move things around and get ready to go.  When your dog is relaxed, actually calm, that is when walks will start.

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This dog is ready to go for a walk.  He is calm and he is showing us that his face and body are relaxed.

If you work on this regularly and reliably, then what you will get is a dog who is calm before walks.  If you only walk your dog when he is aroused and excited then you are only going to have a dog who is aroused and excited, and that is not much fun to live with.  A tired dog is a tired dog.  A calm dog is usually a happy dog.

A TIRED PUPPY IS A HAPPY PUPPY…OR IS HE?

AND PUPPY MAKES MORE

Originally posted May 2013

If I had a nickel for every time that someone said to me “Danish GutterHund, and you know they are like potato chips, you can’t just stop at one” I would be a moderately wealthy behaviour consultant.  When I first got involved with dogs almost everyone I knew only had one dog, or maybe a dog and a cat and very few people had multi dog families.  Now multiples seems to be more and more common.  We had a family join us recently who have FIVE dogs and had just gotten another puppy.  Increasingly I am being asked for help integrating the newest puppy into a multidog household.

I have lived with more than one dog for most of the past twenty years because when John and I moved in together, he had a dog and I had a dog.  When his dog died, we had a brief period where we only had one dog, but we have almost always had two, and often had three or more dogs living full time with us.  When we were raising service dog puppies, we integrated a new puppy into our home at least once a year, so we have this down to a bit of a science.

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It is always a good idea to know what the rules are going to be before you bring home your puppy so that you can start showing him the rules before he starts to get into trouble. Copyright: Fotofront69 / 123RF Stock Photo

To start with decide on what the rules are.  This is a good idea even if you are preparing for your first dog.  It is much easier to teach your puppy what you want him to do if you have spent a little time ahead of time working out what the rules are going to be.  In our house, dogs are not permitted on furniture, they are not permitted to rough house indoors, they are expected to sit before doors open and they can touch their toys but nothing else in our very messy house.  When the resident animals know the rules, then it is much easier for the new animals to learn the rules.

From time to time I meet a very unruly adolescent dog and the owners tell me that in the past they had older resident dogs teach the youngster the ropes and they expected the current older dog to pass along the rules of the house to a puppy.  While the adult dogs are helpful in modelling good behaviour in your home, they cannot be responsible for teaching the puppy what is expected.  The older dogs and other pets don’t have thumbs and cannot open doors, operate the car or control any of the fun stuff that comes to young dogs who are well behaved.

When we bring a puppy home, he spends his first two months or until he outgrows our puppy crate in our kitchen.  We live in a 160 year old farm house, and our kitchen has a door directly to the outside, making this a great place to toilet train puppies.  We work strange hours and we tend to be up at about 8 in the morning and the first thing we do is clip a leash on the puppy and take him outside to toilet.  Then he comes in and stays with us as we do our morning routines of making coffee, hitting the bathroom, cleaning teeth and so on.  When we have the early morning basics underway, we hand feed the puppy a meal, usually as part of a training session.  The adult dogs eat in their crates separately.

After the puppy eats his breakfast, we go outside again to toilet and sometimes if the weather is good to have some outdoor exploring and play time.  We live rurally which means that there are lots and lots of outdoor rules to learn too.  We want our pups to like our horses, but we don’t want them to harass the horses.  We have electric fencing and eventually pups learn that they mustn’t touch that or they will get hurt.  We also live near a busy highway so we have boundary training to do so that the dogs learn never to go across our driveway towards the unsafe road.  If the weather doesn’t co operate we will play with the pups in the kitchen.  We have a system that helps us to teach puppies what to do.  We have a giant puppy toy box filled with everything a puppy could possibly want to play with. The pup is permitted free access to the toy box when he is loose.  We also have dozens of shoes and boots and other household items that just hang out on the floor of our kitchen.  When a puppy interacts with an item that is permitted he gets to keep playing.  When he touches an item he may not we call out a warning signal; “that’s enough”.  If the puppy stops immediately he gets to continue.  If he continues to touch the forbidden items, then we say “too bad” and put him in his crate for a short period of time.  After a few minutes, the puppy comes out and gets to try again..

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Baby D’fer explores the adult dog water bowl.  It was raised because we had an elderly dog who had difficulty dropping his head to drink.  Notice that I am right beside him actively supervising what he is doing.  Supervision is key to success with young dogs.

You may notice that so far I have not mentioned having the adult dogs interacting with the puppy.  After the pup has had his morning play time, I allow the adult dogs up and the pup can see the adults through the crate and they can get to know him without being harassed by him.  In our current home we have three adult dogs.  One of our dogs, Eco is a great dog for interacting with puppies.  He sets boundaries and shows them cool things.  He gets time through the day to interact in a supervised way with the pups.  Another of our dogs does not like puppies at all and he never gets to interact with them.  Our third dog has not yet had a chance to help raise pups because she has so far been too young, but I am better that she will be terrific with them.  Through the day, we provide opportunities for the puppy to interact with the adults in supervised structured ways, but we don’t just let the puppy loose with the adults without guidelines.

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D’fer meets Bear for the first time.  Notice that John is right in the middle of things.  Bear didn’t like puppies and John allowed him to escape through his legs and kept his hand on D’fer so that he could not follow.  When an adult dog tries to avoid a puppy, we support the adult dog; the puppy can learn some manners before he is required to put up with D’fer loose in the house.  D’fer and Bear went on to become fast friends as D’fer matured into adulthood.

If you are integrating a puppy into a home with a cat, you can use the “That’s enough, too bad” system for harassing the cat or cats.  I don’t expect puppies to cuddle up with cats until the are much older, so my early introductions are all about being polite to the cat and not playing roughly and setting a boundary and guidelines about what is and what is not acceptable behaviour related to the cat.  You must decide ahead of time what you want this relationship to look like and if you have a cat who objects strongly to the dog, you must put the needs of the cat front and centre.  Cats usually cope quite well if they have space to go and avoid the dog.  Cat ladders, baby gates and hiding spots for the cat help a lot with the cat’s ability to relax in the company of the dog.

Most of my pups quickly learn that after breakfast is a time to chill out and relax, to settle and to rest.  The busiest part of the day doesn’t come till late afternoon.  After a morning nap, we repeat our early morning routine at noon, training through the puppy’s lunch.  Adult dogs are in a different room when we train the puppy.  With young pups, we teach a lot of self control activities such as the automatic leave it, waiting for the food bowl to drop and not touching it till told to, waiting at doors and not rushing through them, creating puppies who are mannerly and self controlled.  Most of our pups also master sit, down, touch, come when called and go to mat by the time they are about sixteen weeks of age.  After lunch, we may take the youngster out for a walk with one adult dog.  We have found that walking a puppy in the company of multiple adult dogs is risky; adults get to running and racing and it would be a small thing for the puppy to be tripped on or trampled.

 

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Puppies need naps, just like children do!  When you cannot supervise, or if your puppy is tired or if you are between play times, a crate is a perfect place for a puppy to rest.

Our pups go back down for a nap in the afternoon and at about four pm we move our activities to the training hall.  When we are at the training hall our pups are always crated in our kennel area where they can be safely contained and kept out of trouble.  Our pups usually get into a class at least once a day, and this is where they have their third meal.  By having our dogs at the training hall we are able to get them out to pee on a regular basis and they learn that there are behavioural expectations at work.

As our puppies learn the ropes, they get more time out of their crates and doing things and gradually they spend more time both in the house and outside with our adult dogs.  When the pups go through periods of testing the boundaries, we back up and give them fewer freedoms.  We really feel it is important not to allow our puppies out of our sight until they are about sixteen weeks of age.  At that point they start getting more house time as long as they are not making mistakes such as getting on furniture, stealing items that don’t belong to them or playing roughly in the house.  At about sixteen weeks, we start adding pups into play groups in our yard.  We are fortunate to have a yard attached to our farm house and with multiple dogs we find that it is important to give each dog some time with us alone.  This time each day means that the dogs are more bonded to us than to one another, which makes training easier.  In our house, adolescent and adult dogs get time in the yard with one another, and time in the house with us, both alone and with the other dogs.

It is also important to keep in mind that your adult dogs didn’t sign up for a puppy and they will need time alone with you.  This is where having a crate in the kitchen where we spend the bulk of our time can be really helpful.  We can have the adult dogs out with us, and the puppy can learn about the adults in a safe way, but the adults don’t have to put up with a rude puppy who might interrupt time with me.  Puppies in our house also learn that it is not always their turn and that if they start to fuss in their crates then everyone will just leave the kitchen.

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Bear was never impressed with having puppies around.  Generally Crow (the German Shepherd) liked puppies, but he did not like change and the first few days home with a new pup were always difficult for him.

Integrating a new puppy into your home is really a matter of deciding what you want and teaching your puppy the rules.  Young pups need lots of supervision and when we cannot give it to them, using a crate is a great way to keep your puppy safe.  Not everyone has the luxury that we do of being available for our pups all day long, so sometimes we have to work around other constraints.  Many families arrange to come home at lunch time to let their puppies out and then leave again for the afternoon while their pups nap.  Sometimes a good strategy is to get a dog walker who can come in and let the pup out while you are away.  Whatever your schedule is, working around keeping everyone relaxed and happy depends on knowing what you want ahead of time, and then implementing a plan to meet the needs of your household.

AND PUPPY MAKES MORE

ONE OF THE GANG

One of the important things that I do when I work with any dog is to include him in my daily routine. My dog isn’t just an inhabitant of my home; he is my partner in pretty much everything I do. This morning for instance, I included Eco in my ironing; I am working on a craft project that requires ironing, and so when I got the iron and ironing board out, I included Eco in the activity. How might that look? It probably doesn’t look very interesting, but when I opened the closet door, Eco poked his head in and then when I reached for the iron and board, I asked him to back up and he backed out of my way. While I was setting it all up, I asked him to lie down and pointed to where I wanted him to go. I didn’t ask him to stay so when I go out the fabric that I wanted to iron, he got up and took a look at what I had in my hand. When I asked him to go back and lie down, he did. After I was done ironing, I needed to get access to my craft table and he was in the way, so I was able to ask him to change his resting place to another point across the room. When I was done with that part of my project, I need to go downstairs to get some water for the steamer in the iron and I asked Eco to heel beside me down the stairs, which he did. We worked together to get the task done. Was it strictly necessary to have 48kg of black carnivore supervising my activities? Did he contribute? Not really. But we do things together and this morning I was ironing.

 

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This is the kind of help I like to see dogs giving! The dog is obviously part of the activity, and engaged with what is happening but also has the skills to participate in a way that is not going to interfere with the activity progressing. This is what results when you have a good training relationship with your dog! Copyright: halfpoint / 123RF Stock Photo

Sometimes I do things he likes; when I take my daily morning walk, for instance, I throw his feed pan. As a big strong dog, he needed a big strong toy and the thing that worked best for him was a rubber livestock feed pan. It makes a lousy frisbee but he likes it, and he will bring it to me and suggest that I throw it for him. On a good day I can throw it about 20 metres. He includes me in his games and activities because although he doesn’t need a great big primate to amuse him, it is part of how he and I relate.

The bottom line for me is that we share our activities with one another and we each bring skills to the table that the other can ask for and respond to. This is the gift that good reciprocal training gives to me. When Eco was a baby, I did more things that he found interesting than things that I found interesting with him. I spent many hours sitting on the floor playing tug and touch, fetch and search games. As we got to know one another, I began to teach him the words for the behaviours I wanted him to do. This in my opinion is the best kind of teaching to do with a puppy; I didn’t spend so much time at that age formally asking for or prompting sit or down, but sometimes in the course of our interactions, if he offered me a behaviour I was interested in keeping, I might respond by naming the behaviour and then playing a game that Eco wanted to play. It didn’t take long for him to figure out that the names for the behaviours corresponded to what he was doing and that if he did them when I asked, I might do something he would find enjoyable.

A sad tale for me is the story of so many dogs who are not really “one of the gang”. Many of these dogs are well loved and well cared for, but they are not yet partners with their people. The people and their dogs share space and activities in parallel instead of in partnership. The thing to understand about partnership is that it is a two way street, and deep partnership involves more than simply co-habitating and ensuring that your dog has enough to eat and drink. Deep partnership means that we should be aware of one another and respond to one another in a meaningful way. That is probably the biggest reason that I train my dog.

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Informal training sessions with puppies where I engage with what the pup is interested in doing provides me with the best opportunity to teach my puppy about what being my partner is all about! We do things that the pup likes, such as tugging, and when the puppy does what we like, we name it and continue playing. Activities that set up opportunities to trade desired behaviours like sit for tug, set the puppy up to look to us for information about what is happening and being a good partner. Copyright: inspirestock / 123RF Stock Photo

Dog training is the way that I develop a language to use when I am talking to my dog. I do a lot of informal training when I include my dog in my daily activities, but I also need to develop a language that we can share to do more complex things together. If I want to take my dog into the bush and go camping with me, I need him to be able to come when called, lie down and stay off leash, go around obstacles or over them as is necessary and I need him to connect with me so that if there is a challenge we can overcome it together. This is where teaching my dog in a formal setting can really jumpstart what we do together. Sometimes exercises in a class can seem disconnected from what we do informally, but if you start to look for opportunities to incorporate your formal training into your daily life, you not only improve your dog’s overall performance in those exercises, at the same time that you create a better bond with your dog.

If you go back to my ironing exercise, consider all the times when my formal training was integrated into that informal activity. The behaviours that I used during my ironing included backing up on cue, lying down, going to place, moving from one place to another place and heeling so he wouldn’t trip me on the stairs. These are all behaviours that I taught formally in obedience classes. I think that it is interesting that when I use behaviours in context I rarely need reinforcers to maintain them. If my canine partner thinks he is doing something important to both of us, he rarely asks to be paid to work, and I think this is an important clue to successful training. When your dog feels that they are an important part of what you are doing, they are often willing to participate in the activity, and if they have learned the skills to participate, reinforcement is rarely needed.

ONE OF THE GANG

IF YOU DON’T HAVE TIME…

IF YOU DON’T HAVE TIME TO DO IT RIGHT….when will you have time to fix it?

On Facebook recently a colleague brought up the issue of behaviour clients who when asked why they didn’t go to puppy class respond that they didn’t have time. We hear this regularly. Families get a puppy and then don’t have time for class, don’t have time to train, don’t have time to exercise and then they come to us when the puppy is about 8 months old and tell us that the dog is now a nuisance. Further these clients often tell us that they have limited time and resources to fix their issues.

Everywhere I go, I hear about the pressures of time, and how often we spend time doing things such as surfing Facebook and Twitter or doing things that are empty time fillers. I hear about how fast paced life is and how much we each have to do in such a busy society. Apparently the time saving devices such as laundry and dishwashing machines, computers, faxes and phones have in fact created situations where we have so much more to do in our lives that we are busier than ever. In the face of the pressures of busyness at work, social commitments and activities, exercise demands and the pull and push of taking care of ourselves, our family and our community commitments, then when you get a puppy, he can fall between the cracks of other demands on our time.

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The telephone and the computer have all been promoted as labour saving devices, and yet often they are just adding to the amount that we try and do! Your puppy needs your actual attention and he will learn quickly if you are not paying attention to him. Copyright: stockbroker / 123RF Stock Photo

I would like to suggest that a puppy, in all of his frenetic and exciting behaviours is an invitation to slow down for a while. To put aside the busy in your life and take the time to do it right. It doesn’t mean that you have to radically change everything you do, but it does invite some reflection on how we structure our lives around change. What you do in the first 8 to ten weeks that you have a puppy will impact the rest of his or her life. Think about that for a minute. If you get a puppy, and you don’t have time to do it right in those first 8 to ten weeks, when will you have time to fix that?

Getting a puppy can be an expensive proposition in terms of money but also in terms of time. We often hear from new puppy families that they are surprised at the costs they are facing both in terms of money and time, so if you can, it is wise to prepare ahead of time. Before a puppy comes home, carve out the time you will need to spend to help that pup develop to the fullest potential. In our experience, a new puppy requires about three hours a day most days, and five hours a day every day you go to puppy class in order to be successful. Luckily those hours don’t all fall consecutively or we would not get anything done!

In the morning, right off the start, we spend about twenty minutes toileting and feeding our pups. Later in the morning we spend half an hour to 40 minutes with the pup. We repeat this at lunch and dinner and then there are a couple of hours in the evening where the pup spends time with us; we don’t count this as time we have to carve out because we are integrating the puppy into what we do instead of carving time out for things that prevent us from doing what we would normally do.

On class days we have to do all that we normally do plus drive to class, participate in class and then drive home. Sometimes we also carve out time for play dates or to invite guests over to meet the puppy, so three hours is an estimate of a normal day, not a day where we do extras. As the puppy gets older, we shift our interactions with our pups so that they are integrated more and more into our lives, but it is important to recognize that having an adult dog is still going to take an hour out of your day each day to do things like feed, water, and exercise your dog.

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Making time for your pup and your kids, without the pressure of busyness is healthy for everyone and helps to raise your pup to be who he has the potential to be! Copyright: ilona75 / 123RF Stock Photo

If you don’t have three hours a day to devote to getting a puppy, plus a couple of hours each week to take him to puppy class wait to get a dog until you have that time. Far too often what we see are nice families who want a puppy and who get one and initially spend 6 to 8 hours a day on the pup and then drop that down to an hour a day after the first three days. Sadly you cannot pack all that a puppy needs into the first three days! Slow and steady wins the race when it comes to raising a successful puppy! On the first day home, I like things to be quiet and calm for the pup. I like things to be low key so that the pup can quietly get accustomed to living in a new home with new routines and rules. When bringing home a puppy is a big to do, a party and an intense activity, and then you don’t follow that up with the day in and day out needs of the pup for structure, supervision and training, there is terrific potential for fallout.

Puppies are a lot like human toddlers. They need guidance and help to understand the world they are learning about. When toddlers are neglected, we know that grade one is much harder for them. When toddlers don’t get their basic needs for play and social interaction with children their own age, they struggle later with making friends when they go out in the world. This is where taking the time to do it right when your dog is under 16 weeks can really matter. If you don’t teach your puppy when he is young what you want him to know then when he inevitably develops problems then solving them is going to require more time and effort than preventing them.

I personally don’t enjoy the puppy phase very much. Cute just doesn’t motivate me! Never the less, when we have a puppy I take the time out of my day and I do the work that is needed to ensure that my pup will grow up to fulfill the potential he deserves. If I don’t have time to meet the puppy’s needs means that I don’t get that particular puppy. Something I think people sometimes forget is that puppies are always going to be available, but not every time that I want a pup will I have the time to meet his needs. If I don’t have time to do it right, I keep in mind that I likely won’t have time to fix whatever problems develop later.

Getting a puppy is a time where you can reflect on the fact that in our busy lives, there is value in carving out that time to slow down and do the job right from the start. Enrol in puppy class. Give yourself a few extra minutes to meet your pup’s needs. Turn off the TV, the Wi, the Xbox, the net and take that time and repurpose it to meeting the needs of the new life you are bringing into your home. The time you take and give to your pup now will mean a world of difference to his life with you forever. If you don’t have the time to do it right, plan on the time you will need to fix it.

IF YOU DON’T HAVE TIME…

GRATUITOUS CUING

I do say no to things that I think are completely gratuitous.
Amber Valletta (American Actress and Model).

 

In the past couple of weeks I have noticed a lot of chatter online about something I call gratuitous cuing. As the name implies this is asking a dog to do something just because you want him to do that. The dog is minding his own business, hanging out, maybe lying down and relaxed while the owner is chatting with someone and for no reason other than his own need to show that he can, the owner calls the dog over. There is nothing in it for the dog and the dog may not want to go there, but the owner asks the dog to come anyhow. On the surface you may wonder what the problem is. Let’s look at what this does.

The dog is on his own agenda. There are dogs who just love to do whatever it is that you want, but for the most part, dogs do what is important to them. If your dog is lying down and relaxed, and you call him so that you can touch him, just because you want to touch him, think about what this says to the dog.  There are a a certain percentage of dogs who love being touched to the extent that it will be rewarding for them to interrupt what they are doing and do what you want them to do. There are other dogs though who are just tired and want to rest and if they haul themselves to their feet to do as you ask and get nothing for their efforts that they want, then they will stop coming so willingly over time. When the behaviour you ask for is gratuitous, eventually the dog will stop doing the behaviour even if he wants the reinforcer. Why might this be? In a word, dignity. It is not dignified to be treated without respect.

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This dog is completely asleep. Waking her just because you can is unkind but something I see people do “just because I can”. Don’t wake your dog gratuitously! doing so is damaging to the respect you should have for your dog and will degrade the respect your dog has for you! Copyright: chalabala / 123RF Stock Photo

When we live with an animal and we want him to take us seriously, we have to start at a point where we take him seriously first. We have to meet his needs to be a dog, and we have to recognize that our agenda may not always be convenient from the dog’s point of view. One of the biggest complaints that people have about dogs is their uncanny ability to interrupt us just when we sit down to read a book, work on the computer or talk on the phone. We don’t like to be interrupted when we are engaged in activities that are meaningful to us in one way or another and yet, we seem to think it is okay to call the dog to us just because we want to touch or be touched.

The dog notices when we are being calm and still and when we are unlikely to disengage from a task to interrupt them in the activities that are important to dogs. Consider what dogs often do when you get busy with something that you cannot just drop. Often the dog will take that opportunity to engage in activities that they need peace and quiet to complete. When I sit down at the computer, my dogs will often go lie down for a nap; sitting down at the computer is a pretty good signal that I won’t take a notion to go and feed the horses, or take a walk or throw a Frisbee. Those are things that we do together that are meaningful for both of us. Sitting down at the computer means that they can catch a nap without interruption.

Many of my clients have a different experience though. Many of my clients will sit down to read a book and their dogs, realizing that they won’t be interrupted will go and get into things they ought not. A reading human is an opportunity for free access to the trash bin in the bathroom, or uninterrupted counter surfing. Why is it that my dogs sleep when I sit down and disengage from them, but other people’s dogs get into mischief?

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This is what I want my dogs to do when I am working! In order to get them to do this, I take the time to teach them what I want and then allow them to do that without interrupting them. They don’t bother me when I am busy and I don’t bother them when they are busy, and that means that when either of us needs something, we can interrupt and expect to be taken seriously. If this dog needs to go out, she can get up and interrupt her human to make her needs known, but if she doesn’t need something she won’t get in the way of the person’s work day. Copyright: stockbroker / 123RF Stock Photo

The answer is very simple. To start with I don’t ask my dogs to do things that are without meaning. We have such a strong history of doing things that the dogs find meaningful that when I ask them to do something that doesn’t have meaning, the dogs assume that there is some meaning that will be disclosed at some later point. The next thing to keep in mind is that I don’t sit down with a book with young puppies without a plan. If I want to sit down with a book, I have somewhere for the puppy to go, or something for him to do. When my dogs get older I work to ensure that they know that when I pick up a book or sit at my computer, they know that doing so is a signal to them to lie down. By intentionally teaching this instead of accidentally teaching this, my dogs are never left to wonder about what they ought to be doing when I disengage from them.

Calling your dog or disturbing his sleep just to show off how well trained he is has no meaning for the dog and if you really think about it, it is a very disrespectful thing to do, even if you do give him a reward. Dogs who are regularly called “just because” start to weigh whether a reward will be worth leaving something they want to do instead of coming when you need them to do so. Dogs who are woken when they are sleeping, especially when they are startled, can become aggressive because they don’t like being wakened this way. If you need to wake a dog, do it the way that you would like to be wakened, which usually means gently and carefully.

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When your relationship with your dog is deep and meaningful to both of you, you reflect one another. Jumping up can be invited because you have come to an agreement about what is acceptable in your relationship. By not cuing gratuitously, you open the door to meaningful play, and activities that you both enjoy; you reflect one another. Copyright: alanpoulson / 123RF Stock Photo

Think carefully about how you interact with your dog; if your goal is to develop a meaningful relationship with him, then you need to spend time relaxing with him and not asking for behaviours that don’t hold any meaning to him. Then you need to teach him some of the things you want him to know how to do such as coming when called, sitting or lying down and staying and walking nicely on leash. When your dog has some skills find places to use them where they will be meaningful to your dog; walking nicely on leash around the block can be an exercise in frustration for both of you; it is gratuitous to do it just because. On the other hand walking nicely on leash between the house and the car makes sense to the dog; there is a reason to do the behaviour. The more often you think about how a behaviour looks from the learner’s point of view, the better your relationship will become.

In my own experience, when you ask for meaningful behaviours that are appropriate in context to your dog, something else happens. You dog decreases his casual interruptions of your own day. Things smooth out. When you ask for meaningful behaviour, and have taught your dog that you won’t ask for behaviours “just because” your dog will in turn stop harassing you when you are busy. Your dog will reflect what you give him, and that is a really powerful step to take with your non human partner.

GRATUITOUS CUING

RATED R

Originally posted Sunday, May 19, 2013

My dad had a method of rating movies. G movies were good. PG movies were pretty good. R movies were Rotten. XR movies were extra rotten. And when it comes to dog behaviour one of the behaviours people often struggle with are the R rated behaviours; any sexual behaviour and especially humping. Humping seems to be the equivalent of a full frontal nudity scene in a movie; it is at that point where people seem to reliably exhibit one of two reactions; utter fascination or total revulsion. I will warn you now, that if you are squeamish and you don’t want to read about sexual behaviour in dogs, the time to stop reading is right now, because this blog is all about….humping.

Let’s start at the start with the fact that humping is a normal behaviour. Some dogs seem to do more of it than others and some dogs don’t seem to do it at all. Dogs who do it, do it regardless of if they are intact or neutered, male or female. It has nothing to do with dominance. The target can be an object, another dog or a human. Or the cat. And pet owners seem to be endlessly fascinated by it, talking about it, observing it, describing it and ascribing motives to it.

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Humping is a normal behaviour and it doesn’t matter how big or small the humper is, or the humpee!

Dominance is the term used to describe the hierarchy between two or more individuals of the same species when there is a limited resources. I have observed dogs humping in a very wide variety of contexts and I have yet to see a dog use humping to gain access over a resource. You could argue that the humper has control over the humpee, but in my experience, if the humpee doesn’t want to be humped they have very clear ways of explaining that to the humper. If the humper doesn’t listen, then other dogs will often come in to the rescue of the unwilling recipient. Not always, but often. Just this weekend, we are boarding a neutered male who spends much of his time trying to hump our intact bitch Friday. She is due to come into heat in about three months, so he isn’t trying to breed her, although neutered males will breed a bitch in heat. Furthermore, there is an intact male turned out with the neutered male and Friday, and he just doesn’t care that much. Friday will sometimes stand and allow him to hump, and the intact male will sometimes sniff the two of them if they are standing still, but most of the time, Friday uses a different tactic to keep this neutered male from bothering her. She likes to trot just fast enough to keep lover boy on his toes; just when he thinks he can get up on his hind legs, she darts out of his way. Yes, she is a flirt. Today at about three in the afternoon, she must have had enough, because she started running really fast whenever he approached, and when he tried to mount her while she was getting a drink, she turned around and pinned him to the ground. She was really clear when she was done playing the hump me game.

So consider this. The humper got nothing. Friday got a lot of exercise, but she is a very fit, young athletic dog and she wasn’t showing any signs of stress through the 36 hours or so (not continuously; she had turns in the house, and in her crate and out with her normal buddy) that the guest dog spent trying to hump her. When she had enough she explained very clearly to this dog that the game was over and interestingly, he respected that and stopped humping her. The intact male, the smallest of the three dogs didn’t care that the neutered male was humping the intact bitch, and he spent most of the time outside hunting grasshoppers and looking at the horses through the fence and sometimes playing tag with Friday and trying to get her to speed up enough to chase him. How could this be dominance, when the definition of dominance requires that there is some gain for the winner? Could it be that this interaction might possibly have simply been play? That is what I suspect it was. And often that is what I think we see; humping as a normal part of play.

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Here a spayed bitch is humping an intact bitch who is tugging with a neutered male.  This is a completely normal behaviour.  The intact bitch’s ears are pinned not because she is stressed but because she is using her jaw, head and neck muscles to tug with the neutered male.

 

Puppies may start showing this behaviour as early as 4 weeks in the litter. If mom is involved with the litter she will often teach the puppy what is an appropriate amount of humping, who and what they can hump. If the pups have been separated from their dam too early, some pups get to hump without interruption, and they can carry this behaviour further than we might like them to. If your pup is humping and in a puppy class, his classmates will help him to learn who, when and where he can hump, provided they are permitted to do so, and the humans support the humpee if he or she is asking for the humper to stop. A simple delta signal, or warning that says to change behaviour or face the music can help a lot. We say ‘that’s enough” if we feel a youngster is over doing the humping. If he stops and does something else, we allow him to continue playing. If he continues to hump in spite of the recipient asking him to stop and in spite of our warning signal, we say “too bad” and pick the pup up until he settles down and then we return him to play. In general though, the pups do a pretty good job of teaching one another when they should and should not be humping one another.

We often see this behaviour in the context of dogs who are very conflicted and aroused. When they are stressed and uncertain about what to do, we may see dogs humping one another, us or their toys. One of the easiest things to do about this is to address the underlying stresses that the dog is experiencing. This is a prime example of a situation where you really want to take care to use non confrontational training; if the dog is aroused and conflicted, then confronting the dog with an unpleasant consequence is only going to increase, not decrease the stress.

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Here is a humper who is clearly conflicted in some way; his facial expression is not relaxed and his humping is likely a response to just not being sure what to do.  Contrast his expression to that of the humpee who is fairly relaxed in his facial expression.  Photo credit:  Paul Shelbourne, Urban Dog.

There are a few dogs we have met who appear to have a sign tattooed to their hind ends that say the canine equivalent of “hump me, I’m Irish”. Like the human kiss me tee shirts, these don’t seem to be worn by the more confident outgoing dogs. We used to have a dog who boarded with us several times a year and no matter who we put him out with, or walked him with, he would get humped. The only reason he wasn’t humped in our living room is that we have a strict “take it outside” rule for humping that all of our resident dogs completely understand. This dog didn’t seem to mind, and in fact, when other dogs didn’t hump him, he would often throw his hind end into their faces. One of my assistants hypothesized that this may have been his particular way of asking other dogs to play with him. Whatever the reason, he didn’t seem to mind, and we didn’t interfere. This dog never had trouble working with any of the other dogs, including those who had humped him when loose together.

Dogs don’t just hump one another; they also hump things. About ten years ago, a veterinarian I worked with asked me to visit one of her patients in his home. At 9:00pm every evening, just after the kids went to bed, the dog was suspected of having seizures. Video cameras were much less common then, so she asked if I could drop by and observe for her and tell her what I saw. The dog lived in my neighbourhood and I was happy to oblige. I arrived at about 8:30 and the couple greeted me at the door. The kids were at a neighbour’s and we had the opportunity to watch this dog in action. The dog was a two year old neutered male maltese. I asked a bunch of questions and it turned out that this dog had a very extensive ritual that he went through before the “event”.

At 8:45, he would begin to pace and pant. He would get gradually more and more excited, and then he would start jumping against the cupboard door where one particular special toy was kept. I asked what would happen if they didn’t get the toy out. He became dangerously aggressive towards whomever was nearest. Dominance? Nope, they aren’t the same species. Let’s call this what it is; dangerous, obnoxious, rude behaviour that had been put on a reinforcement schedule. In other words, the family had taught the dog that by being aggressive he could get his toy.

At about five minutes to nine, the couple opened the door, got out a stuffed bear and gave it to the dog. The dog grabbed the toy and ran to the living room couch, jumped up and began to hump away like crazy. The husband started to get quite upset; “see”, he asked? “See, he is having a seizure!” Gently I tried to explain to them that the dog was masturbating and was very good at it. The husband turned beet red and the wife began to laugh. She was nearly hysterical with her laughter. I was left trying to “normalize” the information I had to share about normal behaviour in neutered males, but the more I explained the more the woman laughed, with tears eventually rolling down her cheeks.

About seven minutes after he started, the dog was finished and he relaxed, jumped off the couch and went to lie down in his bed and we were able to talk again. The husband was still fairly tense, but the wife kept breaking into giggles. What was so funny? Well, it turns out that at Christmas the past year, her uncle had a video camera and had taken film which he was showing around his seniors home in Florida, with the residents baffled at what the fluffy little white dog was doing to his bear.

In dozens if not hundreds of species, animal behaviourists have observed masturbating in both males and females. Kagaroos? Yes. Horses? Yes. Bonobos? It is pretty much the single most common behaviour they show, both in captivity and in the wild. And yes, domestic dogs masturbate. The solution I suggested and the family chose to take up was to do some obedience training at about twenty minutes to nine in the evening each night and then give the bear to the dog in a quiet private room. As a friend of mine told her five year old daughter-“that is something special we do by ourselves with the door closed.” As a side note, discussing this with the family it turned out that they were so afraid that the bear might be lost or damaged that they had gone to the petstore and found out where the bear was made, and special ordered twenty of them. Yes, they had a dresser drawer full of maltese terrier sized masturbation pillows.

I remember going to a John Rogerson seminar several years ago where he described collecting all the male police dogs each week in a large canine program he worked with. The image baffled the mind; ten young men and their German Shepherds, every Thursday afternoon sounds implausible, but that is what he claimed they did to prevent the dogs from spending time and energy humping things they ought not, or spending time in their crates masturbating instead of resting. I am not sure how well that worked, but according to John Rogerson, this was standard practice in this particular program.

I have also worked with bitches, both intact and spayed who have humped items as diverse as their owners, the arm of the living room couch, pillows, laundry and on one interesting case, a specific log in the yard. I have had clients who have put the behaviour on cue and brought it out as a party trick, not realizing what they have trained the dog to do. This behaviour is normal, and in my opinion the best thing to do when it happens is to redirect the dog onto an appropriate item in an appropriate place. It is important to understand that this behaviour is inherently self rewarding, and if you spend a lot of time trying to stop the dog from doing it, the dog is going to become difficult to handle. In the words of the Beatles…Let it be.

My exception to interrupting this behaviour is when the target of the dog’s affection is a non canine animal. When the target is the family cat or a child, then I intervene, immediately, with “that’s enough/too bad”. When the target is an able bodied adult, I teach them how to do this effectively. Combining this tactic with controlling arousal and opportunities to hump more appropriate opportunities usually resolves this problem very quickly.

There is some evidence that neutering before sexual maturity may decrease humping and I have seen this happen, but it doesn’t happen without behaviour modification support. Without boundaries and rules, whether imposed by people or by other dogs, the neutered dog is going to continue, for the same reason that masturbating occurs in every other species; because it feels good.

RATED R

NEVER TURN YOUR BACK!

Originally posted May 2013

Controlling unwanted behaviours is something that drives a good number of my clients to see me and more and more I am seeing clients engaging in a tactic to try and control behaviours that they don’t like. The tactic is to turn your back on a dog who is misbehaving. I even had one client tell me that this is the tactic they use with children who are being naughty. The idea is that when the learner cannot see your face, he is upset that he is not getting attention while he is misbehaving. Nice in theory, but there are some problems with this idea.

The very first problem is the premise that dogs or children will do something they ought not do because it gets them attention and negative attention is better than no attention at all. This points to a whole raft of problems in how we apply behaviour modification, to dogs, to children and even to adults we interact with. If behaving in a desired way gets you nothing, why bother modulating your behaviour at all? Why shouldn’t the learner just behave the way that makes them happy? If there is no benefit to changing your behaviour, then why would you? The fact is that if you are not attending to the behaviours that you want, then behaviours that you don’t want will creep in.

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Actually…you don’t have eyes on the back of your head.  All too often I see students in class turning their back on their dog when the dog does something he ought not do.  You cannot train a dog you cannot see!  Photo copyright Sue Alexander 2016

When the learner is clear about the consequences for undesired behaviours, and unclear about the consequences for desired behaviours, then believe it or not, the learner may sometimes decide that the known outcome is a safer and better bet than the unknown outcome. Certainty is much easier for some learners than uncertainty. This means that if you set out a consequence for an undesired behaviour, and the learner doesn’t find that consequence unpleasant, then there is no reason for the learner to not do the behaviour you don’t want. Let me get a bit more concrete here for a moment. If the dog likes jumping up on you and doesn’t mind your back being turned then turning your back isn’t going to stop the jumping. The dog jumps, you turn away and then the dog jumps again. Not a big deal from the dog’s perspective, so he can go on jumping up without any concerns. At least not for him.

Some dogs jump up because they want attention and when jumping up doesn’t work the first time because you have turned away, they can then grab clothing at will. Now we have a situation that is outright dangerous, and often people will attempt to counter cue at this point. So the dog jumps up, the person turns away, the dog grabs and the person says “off” or “leave it”. If the dog jumps off as eventually he must, then the owner may attend to the dog and create a string of behaviours that are reinforced. Now the dog is left thinking that the way we want him to interact is to go through this sequence of jumping up, turning away, cuing and then attending to the dog. Sometimes though, instead of this sequence what happens is that the dog jumps up, you turn, he grabs clothing and he gets a great game of tug going. Tug, tug, tug, rip! And now the owner is really upset, but the dog doesn’t know why.

Turning away from a naughty dog or child just makes it impossible to train because you cannot mark the behaviours you like. You cannot mark them because you cannot see them and if you cannot see them, then your marker is never going to come at the right time. And what is a marker? It is a signal to the dog of a consequence that is coming. If for instance my dog jumps up, I mark that behaviour with “that’s enough”, before his feet touch me. If he gets right off without touching me with his feet, then I will mark that by saying “thank you” and attend to him with attention, toys or treats. If he doesn’t, I give a second marker and say “too bad” and gently remove him to his crate.

In many families when mom turns her back, the children know that they can misbehave and then scape goat one of the weaker children in the group. Dogs do similar things; they take advantage of the turned back to get into things they know they ought not get into. Turning your back is at least going to provide your dog with the chance to make the wrong choice and at most put him in a position of learning that you cannot mark his behaviour and tell him what the outcome is going to be.

This past year, I met a dog who showed an extreme version of what happens when you turn your back on a dog who is jumping up. He had been thrown out of his doggy day care because he was running behind the staff, and jumping up and tearing off their shirts and then running around the day care playing tug with the employees clothing. With multiple dogs on site chaos predictably ensued. This behaviour became so dangerous that in the home the dog knocked over a child and ripped several items of clothing.  I have actually met several dogs who do this, and they have all had handlers turning their back when they jumped up.  Understanding how this developed, we were able to start interrupting the behaviours creatively and non confrontationally. The sad thing is that the dog now has a bite record and isn’t allowed to come back to day care.

When we are trying to resolve a behaviour problem there are a number of steps we need to take. First, we have to identify the problem behaviour. Let’s take jumping up as an example. We need to decide when the behaviour is a problem and when it stops and starts. The dog isn’t jumping up in his sleep, so it isn’t a problem then. You might be able to define the behaviour by saying that the dog approaches the person, and when he is just within arm’s reach, he raises his front feet off the floor and puts them on the person. Notice that there is a sequence to the behaviour; it isn’t a problem until he is close to the person he is going to jump on. This means that there is a window of opportunity to teach the dog to keep his paws to himself. The trainer has the chance to mark the approach either by saying thank your or yes or maybe by clicking and then by dropping a treat on the ground. Dropping treats is my best tactic for dogs who bounce up in your face because they cannot jump up and drop their head at the same time.

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Turning your back is not always intentional. Any time we disengage from the dog, we can get side tracked and the dog can do as he wishes. This dog has been taught what to do when his person is busy, so that she can disengage and depend on him to mind his manners. One of the mistakes I often see beginners make is disengaging from their puppy before they have taught the puppy what to do. Many dogs learn that they can bark or jump up when you are on the computer or the phone because you cannot do anything to change the behaviour! Copyright: redav / 123RF Stock Photo

Maybe though, you are faced with a really quick dog who charges in and you cannot get that marker or treat out fast enough. Maybe the dog is all the way up before you are ready. Then you can use a marker that says there will be a different outcome. I say “too bad” and either I go into a bathroom, or I gently take the dog and put him in a different place where I am not. In both situations, I have to be able to see the dog in order to be able to mark when the behaviour is happening and when it is over.

If you are not able to tell when behaviours are happening, then you are not training. When the consequence of the behaviour is that the dog loses your presence altogether, either by you leaving or by him being confined, then there is a discrete predictable outcome. When you turn your back, the outcome is ambiguous and potentially dangerous. Don’t turn your back on a learner who is doing things that are dangerous. It isn’t safe for you and it often helps to develop much more dangerous behaviours in your dog.

NEVER TURN YOUR BACK!