THE BARE NAKED DOG

Originally posted April 2013

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Bare Naked And Beautiful!  Photo: Melanie Wooley

Recently a competing dog training school posted pictures of their graduating class to their Facebook page.   The album featured six smiling families with their dogs in a sit and a graduation certificate and individual brags beside picture.  On five out of the six dogs, they were obviously wearing prong collars.  Interesting.  Two of the six dogs showed clear signs of distress and one dog appeared to be really frightened.  All the people were wearing big smiles and the instructor made a point that he was graduating six well trained dogs.  Hmmm.  Why do six well trained dogs all need prong collars?  And why do well trained dogs look so stressed?  Could it be that the people feel that their dogs are under control by virtue of the equipment that they wear?

Jumping back twenty years or so, I remember when the leash laws first came into Guelph.  There was a lot of publicity about dogs being leashed on a leash that was no more than two metres in length and being under control without a lot of information about what exactly under control meant.  One fine summer day, I was out in the park in a legitimate off leash area with my dog off leash.  Being a dog trainer, I was doing what I am prone to doing; I was training my dog.  I left him on a sit stay, and walked about 50 metres away.  A woman came along with her two kids and stopped dead and then began to scream at me to get my dog under control.  Fifty metres away, my dog sat panting and looking around, and this woman continued her tirade about dangerous dogs.  My leash was around my shoulders as it usually is, and my dog was relaxed and I was really confused.  At first I protested that my dog WAS under control.  This seemed to rev the woman up even more.  After several minutes of this, I called my dog and she and the children began to shriek.  My dog came and I leashed up and the woman finally relaxed a tiny amount and told me that the new law required my dog to be under control.  I had an aha moment.  By under control, she meant ON LEASH.  Under control means something entirely different to me.

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This puppy is off leash, outdoors and running, but he is STILL under control. His intense focused look is just what we expect to see in a puppy learning to come when called!

When I first started to offer dog training classes I mostly had my students using the traditional chain slip collar that we now understand can cause a lot of injuries.  I don’t use them any longer and don’t allow them on my training grounds.  The risk of injury to my students’ dogs is just too high, and I think that they really gave us a false sense of what it meant to be under control.  When control is entirely reliant on stopping bad behaviours from happening, then we aren’t actually teaching dogs to have self control; we are teaching them that if they do things we don’t want, they will get hurt.  Again, I have to reflect that as a society we have a funny way of thinking about “control”.  We spent most of our time teaching the dogs what they could not do and how badly we could hurt them if they stepped out of line.

In my introduction to dog training class, I had an activity that I did with one of my own dogs.  I dressed him up in every piece of dog training equipment I owned.  I put on a halter and a harness, a chain collar, a flat buckle collar, a martingale, a dog coat and a prong on him.  I would put him through his paces and one by one take all the equipment off.  I would point out to my audience that my dog was happy to work bare naked.  I did a lot of work with that dog and it was wonderful exciting happy work, even though I started him on a pain based system.  What I learned with that particular dog is that it is not the equipment.  It is the relationship.  Control doesn’t depend upon the collar, it is reliant on the relationship.

Relationship is what really creates a dog under control.  At Dogs in the Park, we start all of our dogs on flat buckle collars and two metre leashes, and we do the first few classes with the dogs tethered to the wall.  We recognize that we are not starting with dogs who have self control or even owner directed control.  We work towards getting the dogs off the wall as quickly as we can.  We want the dogs to be successful and the people to be successful too, so we take out the variable in the equation of the dog making the wrong choice.  We tether and work on SELF control.

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I am much more concerned about this on leash dog than I would be about the off leash puppy above. Everything about this dog tells me that he doesn’t want to be with the person on the end of the leash and that he is pretty intent on getting to where he wants to go. Being in control has nothing to do with the equipment the dog is wearing and everything to do with the amount of education that dog has, the relationship he has to the person he is working with and the situation that the people have put him into.

My dog out in the park was demonstrating self control.  He was controlling his impulse to go and run up and say hi to the kids.  He was controlling his impulse to go to the river to swim.  He was controlling his impulse to lie down.  My dog was in control of himself and he was doing what I wanted him to do; he was minding his manners and staying where I had left him.  This is the level of self control that is easy to live with.  I didn’t have to worry about this dog pulling people over; he wouldn’t dream of pulling on leash.  I didn’t have to worry about him leaving either; he knew that staying was the game at the moment.  In training, that is the goal.  A well trained dog is a dog who is happy and confident and who will mind his manners, even if he is bare naked.

Getting from the point of being tethered to the wall and learning to not take treats and to not knock people over when they come in to greet to being able to be left on a sit stay or a down stay at fifty metres does not need to be painful for the dog, but it is an important step in developing self control.  It should in fact be fun for everyone.  At home, you should be doing most of your training off leash.  The leash is a great tool but it is only a tool and it is not about great training.  It is what we use when we must, not what actually teaches the dog to do something.  What actually teaches the dog to do things is not the equipment he wears or the words that you say, but the direct outcomes of his own behaviour.

The key to getting from point A, the dog who is out of control to point B the dog who will do distance stays while his person is being screamed at is a process of steps.  Seeing the pictures of the graduating class of the other school reminded me of how important steps and stages are.  At the very beginning, I have to acknowledge that the dog does not understand what I want.  If pain is the tool we choose to explain this to the dog, then we need to be able to set the dog up to learn quickly and efficiently that there is a way to avoid pain.  The pain should be minimal and rare and the dog should understand how to not get hurt.  In the old days when I was first learning to train we would do set ups where we would set the dog up to fail so that he could learn that he would be hurt if he made the wrong choice.  I realize now, especially when I look at pictures and video from those days that my dog was often concerned about being right and worried that she would get hurt.  The picture of the graduation class brought home some pretty strong memories for me, some of which I am not entirely proud of.

Now when I look at the journey from point A to point B, I ask myself if the dog is relaxed and happy.  If the dog is relaxed, then I know that he understands what I want him to do.  I look not only at if the dog can do the skill, but also if the dog is comfortable about it.  If the dog is not comfortable I reassess what I am asking him to do.  When we start a dog in training at Dogs in the Park, they start on the wall and we ask the question; “are you comfortable enough to take treats?”  If the answer is yes, then we ask “are you comfortable enough to click and treat?”  If the answer to that is yes, then we ask “are you comfortable enough to refrain from taking treats when you should not?” and if the answer is yes, we ask the question “are you comfortable enough to offer behaviours?”  If we get a no, then we work with the client to determine what we need to do to make the dog feel safe and comfortable enough to work in our classroom.  We ask the dog.

Training is not just about skills acquisition.  It is also about the emotional state of the dog, and the relationship that the dog has with you.  When a dog feels confident about you and the work you are doing, he is eager and keen to try new things.  He doesn’t look worried or concerned.  He doesn’t look like something might go wrong at any moment.  When a dog feels confident about what he is doing he is willing to engage in things with you, and that is what partnership is about.  It is not just about skills acquisition at all; it is about everything that the dog is thinking about and experiencing including how the dog is working with you.

So I come full circle back to the graduation pictures that my competitor posted.  The people look thrilled and proud.  Half the dogs look relaxed.  The instructor describes his clients and their dogs as well trained dogs and people.  But three of the six dogs look unhappy and at least five of the six dogs are wearing devices that operate on pain.  None of the dogs is looking at his person as though that person was interesting or cool.  This is where we started at Dogs in the Park.  I am really glad we moved on to where we are now.  The pictures I post of my clients don’t show a whole lot of graduations.  We don’t graduate dogs anymore.  We celebrate when they achieve levels.  And we see a lot more happy and a lot fewer stressed dogs.  I am really proud of what we are doing here, and I hope my students are just as proud of themselves; our dogs learn skills and they also learn about partnership and relationship and trust.  And when you dog trusts that you have his back, he will do nearly anything for you.  One step at a time, towards a goal that is meaningful for both of you.  I am so glad my competition posted their pictures.  Sometimes I just need some confirmation that I am heading in the right direction.

THE BARE NAKED DOG

WHY PLAY DOG SPORTS?

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Teaching Treibball at DogzWorth in Montreal was tremendous fun and I had the chance to reflect on a lot!  Thanks to everyone who attended and to the hosts Ally and Melody!

Originally posted May 2013

I am on the train home now, after a fantastic weekend teaching Treibball with Dogzworth in Montreal.  Great dogs, great people and a fantastic time.  AND sushi for lunch.  When I do workshops like this I often have the opportunity to visit people who are excited about a new sport or activity with their dogs and who are keen on learning new things.  I get this at our own school too, but it is interesting to see a whole group of people who are new to me and watch them develop skills and tools to become really proficient at something brand new to them.

There are a wide variety of sports you can play with your dogs now.  Obedience is possibly the oldest dog sport still widely played, where the handler and dog negotiate a series of activities directed by the judge, including walking on and off leash, allowing a stranger to pat the dog, and coming when called.  Rally Obedience is an offshoot of obedience which allowed us to be marked on the preparatory exercises that we do to train for obedience trials.  Agility is the fast sport of jumps, tunnels and obstacles.  Flyball is a relay race you play on a team of four dogs and their handlers.  The dogs race over four jumps, grab a ball out of a box and then run back and another dog goes.  There are other sports too; protection, tracking, herding and retrieving all have their own competitions.  And now there is Treibball.

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Eco was really good at treibball and although we never competed it was something we really enjoyed doing together. Photo credit: Melanie Wooley

In the group I was teaching we had a wide variety of dogs with a wide ranges of backgrounds and talents.  Of course there were a lot of flyballers and agility people there, but there was also a really talented Belgian who does obedience.  I had a great chance to reflect on what doing sport gives us with our dogs, and what in particular Treibball gives us to support other activities.

First and foremost, I do sport with my dogs because we enjoy it.  I love teaching sport because the dogs and the people are generally so happy.  Especially when I am teaching a one day workshop.  The only people who come are those who actually want to learn about what I am teaching; they are not coming to resolve a problem or to make a point; they are coming to have some fun while they learn something new with their dogs.  Some folks get themselves all stressed out about competing and many people train for the sport and play on their own to avoid this stress.  It is essential that we remember that we do this to have fun with our dogs, so if it is stressful, find another sport or find a way to play without the stress.

Secondly, dog sports, regardless of which ones, are activities that you and your dog do together.  Your dog cannot go to class without you, and for the most part, people are not going to go to dog classes without their dogs.  This joint activity makes for an interesting and fun way to connect with your dog.  If for no other reason than the connection, dog sport is something I highly recommend for people who want to have a better relationship with their dogs.  When you do sports with your dog, you have the chance to travel with your dog to places where you will meet with other dog people and their dogs.  I have spent many happy days in the company of my dogs at obedience and rally trials.  About two years ago, one of my instructors and I went to a trial together in Belleville.  She drove and I slept; I haven’t been able to live that down yet.  We had a terrific time together, cheering for one another when we won ribbons and sharing our disappointments when we made mistakes that prevented us from qualifying.  Our dogs travelled beautifully together in crates side by side and we walked together in the morning before breakfast.  Dog sports is all about relationships, both between you and your dog but also between you and the other people who play the sports with you.  At the workshop this weekend, many people knew each other from previous events and their dogs knew one another too.

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In his younger days, D’fer enjoyed agility. Here Deef is learning to run down the teeter, with his eyes closed! Photo credit: Karen Brodie

In order to play dog sports, you have to have a set of skills.  Obedience classes cover skills, but often we don’t have much context for those skills.  We love our obedience classes, but one of the reasons that our students come to us is usually because they want to solve a problem such as pulling, not coming when called or not staying when told.  When you put obedience skills into the context of a sport, the dogs and the people both get more out of the experience.  Yes, there are foundational skills to develop in order to play the games, but really, if you only ever developed the skills and never used them for anything useful what motivation would you have to maintain those skills?

As I taught the Treibball workshop yesterday, I was able to make ties between the skills we were teaching and a number of other sports.  We do a one hour down stay.  This teaches the dog to relax and to watch things around him.  Dogs who watch things carefully are tuned into what their handlers want and what is happening around them.  This is useful in obedience, rally, flyball, agility, protection, and herding.  A dog who will lie down and stay for an hour is also a dog who is easier to live with.  When you can ask your dog to lie down and stay for an hour, you can weed the garden, change the oil in your car, bring in and put away the groceries or bathe your baby all in the company of a calm and self controlled friend.

We teach a long go out in Treibball.  Distance work is a big part of a number of other sports; agility, flyball and utility all include being able to send your dog away from you.  We actually teach this in a number of ways; there is the go to mat, convenient for agility pause tables, and the go round directional control which is also useful for agility.  The dogs who understand that we want them to go away from us and DO something can do all sorts of things, either at home or in sports.  If you have your hands full and you want your dog to move out of your way, a good send out is really helpful.  In context most dogs like to do things that are difficult when taught in isolation.  If the dog doesn’t see the point of you sending him away from you, then the ONLY reason he is doing it is for the treat.  If you teach your dog to go out so that he can jump a jump or go through a tunnel, then it makes sense to him and the food becomes a quantum of information that tells him what and how, within the context of why.  Without the why, many dogs just don’t get the point and even though there may be a treat in it for them, they baulk or refuse outright.

We also teach the dog to go in the direction that we tell them to go.  This can be extremely handy when you have a dog headed to the wrong obstacle in agility, or if you want him to change directions in a search or when retrieving multiple items.  In obedience the dog who understands directionals is going to have an easier time of the directed jumping and retrieving because you can cue the dog more precisely where you want him to go.

An interesting paradox in dog training is that although we set up the situation, the dog is really the expert in how to do much of the job.  In agility, I can tell you how to handle and how to set the dog up to succeed, but it is the dog who knows where to put his feet on the teeter and when to shift his balance to make it tip.  In flyball, it is the dog who knows how far each jump is away from the previous jump and although we can teach the dog to do a swimmer’s turn and to grab the ball at just the right moment, and we control the moment at which the dog takes off, we cannot do that for the dog.  Sport forces us to let the dog do his part of the job.  There is no human fast enough to gather sheep into a group and then balance them through a gate and into another pasture.  We cannot do the dog’s job!

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It doesn’t matter if you get a ribbon when you compete in a dog sport because any activity you do WITH your dog and other like minded dog people is a win!

Conversely, the dog is ill equipped to do our job.  I like to think about dog sport in terms of me deciding what and when, and the dog deciding how.  As a partnership, my role is to make the choices and take the actions that I am suited to and my dog must be permitted to do his part of the job in the way that works the most efficiently for him.  I remember once getting some coaching from D’fer’s breeder about retrieving ducks.  D’fer had been taught how to hold a dummy and a dumbbell and he had held some real ducks, but I was having all kinds of difficulty getting him to take the duck by the body when I threw it in the field.  He would grab the duck by the wing tip and try and run back with it.  He would stop and regrip.  He had even been known to throw the duck out of his way when he was frustrated by tripping over it.  Amy suggested letting Deef figure out what the best way was to hold the duck might be.  She suggested and quite rightly so, that I stop trying to micromanage his part of the job.  We set up a couple of dozen short retrieves for him and allowed him to make all the mistakes he wanted.  At about fetch number fifteen he decided that picking up the duck by the body would work best, and he learned through trial and error, not because I told him how to do his job.  By doing my part well (directing him and allowing him to work it out) he was able to figure out how to pick up the duck (the way I wanted him to!).

This weekend’s workshop really pointed out to me how nicely Treibball can tie together many other sports and skills.  If you have a puppy, you may be reading this because you are thinking about sports to do with your dog.  There are so many benefits to playing games and sports with your dog.  As I travel with D’fer I can see how our years and years and years of demos and teaching and doing dog sports have tied us together.  I can tell him where to go and how to get there and although he may not always see the point right away, we have done so many things together that when I ask him to do things, he doesn’t ask why; he knows there will be a point to what I am asking.  This trust is a testament to the relationship we have built, together over the years.  The trust runs both ways too; if Deef tells me that I am making a mistake or if he wants to do something special, I trust that it is important to him and that I will ultimately benefit if i follow his lead.  I have rarely been disappointed when I have followed my dog’s lead.  This is what I would love to offer to every student of mine who comes in with a puppy.  A means to communicate with your dog, while you have fun and do meaningful things together.  If you are at the beginning of your training journey and you haven’t yet thought about it, try a sport.

WHY PLAY DOG SPORTS?

WAIT A MINUTE!

At Dogs in the Park we run a drop in gym style program where students can come to more than 15 classes a week with their dog and learn about dog training.  When they have passed enough basic exercises, advanced classes open up to them.  When dogs come to training classes we always tell people to practice their skills regularly and often.  What we intend is that you will learn skills in the classroom that you will then take out and practice in the rest of your world.  If for instance, your dog has learned to sit at school in the classroom, we expect that you will practice at home, in your yard, at the park and on the street.  What we don’t expect is that students will attend all of our classes each week, although we have had students try and do so.

The problem with going to school every day is that the dog never gets a chance to experience something important called latent learning.  Latent learning is the kind of learning that happens when you are not paying attention.  Latent learning is the kind of learning that creates eureka moments for you.  One of the greatest learning moments of my life came about when I was struggling with a pamphlet to advertise my previous business.  I had been struggling off and on with my printer, the software and my computer to try and figure out how to make a double sided colour pamphlet using just the tools I had.  I tried all sorts of things and nothing was satisfying my vision.  Eventually, as we all do, I gave up the struggle with my problem and went to bed.  At about four in the morning I sat bolt upright in bed with the solution.  I rushed down to my home office and tried out my idea and then spent the next four hours printing exactly what I wanted.  Let’s examine the steps that led to my moment of clarity.

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If you have ever been advised to “sleep on it” when trying to solve a problem, you were being told to use latent learning to your advantage. Dogs do this too!

The first step was getting a sense of what I wanted to do; I defined the problem.  This is a bit like when your dog is first exposed to a behaviour in class.  The dogs get a sense of the problem and they sort out what it is that you are driving at.  Sometimes this phase of learning can go along for a very long time.  For some dogs and for some people they need to probe the question for a long time to discover what it is that they are driving at.  There comes a point though, when probing the problem just needs to stop in order for the learner to reflect and make the connections between the pieces of the puzzle.

The next step is trying out solutions.  With my problem I tried changing the settings on my printer, and changing the format of my document.  This is the same stage of learning that dogs go through when they try out variations on their idea of what you are driving at with training.  This is the stage where the dog may try not doing the behaviour to see what the outcome is.  As a trainer this can be a very frustrating stage to go through and we can make life a lot harder on our dogs by endlessly drilling at this point.  Most dogs, like me, need to have the chance to give their ideas a try and fiddle a bit but then they are better off to take the time to back off and think about the issue for a bit.  Trainers benefit too because when they reflect on the issues they are working through they may come up with novel solutions and better ways of explaining what they want to their dogs. 

After fiddling for a bit, I went through a very annoying phase.  I would have been better to have gone on and done something different after I had fiddled with it, but being that I am stubborn and try really hard, I decided I would try even harder.  I see some of my students going through this phase when they attend a daily levels class but don’t go away and think about what they are teaching their dogs.  They don’t go away and think about alternatives.  They don’t leave the behaviour alone and let the dog think about the work they are doing.  Like me, they just push and try harder and they frustrate themselves, their instructors and most of all their dogs.

When you get stuck in this phase of learning something, you start trying things that normally you would not try.  I once caught myself picking up my printer with the intention of dropping it to see if that would prompt it to print.  In case you are wondering, dropping the printer won’t make it print.  If you have ever been frustrated by a print job that just won’t work, you have probably also been tempted to shake up the printer a bit.  It just won’t work.  The equivalent to that in dog training is when the trainer abandons the lesson in favour of the result.  I watched one student of mine lift the dog onto a piece of equipment and then reward him, over and over again during this phase.  The dog learned that being on the equipment predicted treats, but he didn’t learn how to use his body to get onto the equipment, so in the end, the dog didn’t learn what the trainer had set out to teach him. 

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This dog looks like he is asking a question! Maybe his question is “what are you driving at?” This is a common question during training!

The “leave it alone and let the dog think” method of problem solving usually gets you better results.  Allowing the dog to have some time between when you first explain the behaviour to them and when you next ask them to offer the behaviour can yield some surprising results.  Often the dog needs a chance, just like I did with my print job to just let the training percolate a bit.  If you allow the dog to have the time and space to think about what they are doing, you can end up with faster more effective learning.

I should be clear though; latent learning won’t work if you don’t lay a good foundation and revisit the exercises from time to time, but if you just hammer away at the problem for days on end, you never give your dog the chance to just think about it.  So often I have watched a dog come along very quickly after they have had a few days off, if they have had a good solid exposure to the things you are teaching first.  If they don’t have a solid exposure, then they don’t make those leaps.  Latent learning is especially important for the intermediate and advanced dogs; they have a lot of education and learning under their belts and to deny them the chance to use that experience to support what they are learning by reflecting is really unfair.

So how do you know that you have done enough foundation work and you just need to leave it alone?  To begin with, this is most applicable in training of more complex, chained behaviours.  If you have been doing your foundational work with sit, down, stay, target with the nose, target with the paw and so on, then when you start putting together chains you may notice that your dog slows down a bit in his learning.  Work on something for ten minutes and then give it a break.  Work on something that the dog is already really good at for a few minutes.  Then come back to what you were working on to begin with.  Just this little break may allow your dog to regroup and be more successful.  If that doesn’t happen, leave the whole thing for a couple of days.  Come back to it when you and your dog are fresh again.  If you still aren’t successful, leave the whole thing for a couple of days and then come back to it again with fresh eyes and a fresh start.

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Teaching a dog to jump onto an obstacle to do a trick can be broken down into a number of steps. In this image we can see one person helping the dog to balance while the other person holds a toy for the dog to focus on. Helping the dog learn the parts of the behaviour gives him the foundation to hold a stand stay on the object later on. The dog will put the parts of the behaviour together over time.

In the days between when you introduce an exercise, and when you reintroduce the exercise, review in your own mind to make sure you haven’t skipped steps or become so focused on the goal of the exercise that you haven’t reinforced the foundational work sufficiently that it will make sense to the dog.  The time you take away from the training session will benefit you too!  It gives you a chance to reflect on and analyse your training, to form questions to ask your dog when you get back to it.  Down time is really important to good training for both you and your dog.

The one caveat about using latent learning is that there is probably an optimal time for each learner to leave the learning alone, and that time is probably different from individual to individual.  If you wait too long between sessions, you risk that the learner will forget the foundations you have worked on.  My general plan is to make a mental map that will allow me to help the dog find the way through the process of obtaining the skills towards an end behaviour.  It might look something like this:

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This is how I think of teaching a compound behaviour to a dog. I like to think about all the foundation behaviours, and then about grouping them into chunks and finally putting them all together. This is of course a very simplified version of the process for scent discrimination with a retrieve!

When you make a map of where you want to go in training, it is easier to see where you are going and where you are going wrong.  I might teach the Foundation Behaviours months before I work on the next level of training.  I might review the Foundation Behaviours in the weeks ahead of working on the next level.  Then I might introduce the “Two Steps to Glue Together” as two different behaviours and work on that for a few days.  Then I might leave it alone for a couple of days or even a week.  Then I might go back and see how the dog is doing with that second step.  If he is not getting the behaviours, then I might review the Foundation Behaviours again and try the next level behaviours a second time.  Then I might let it sit for a while again.  When the dog is able to give m the second level of behaviours easily, then I might introduce the end behaviour.  At this point in training some dogs get the idea right away and some of them need to try it a few times before they get it and a good number of dogs need to let the idea sit for a week or two.  I just keep revisiting success and then come back to the more difficult step or stage later until the dog puts the pieces together.

Latent learning can feel like a giant leap of faith.  It can feel like you are not really training at all, but with advanced dogs, it can really make the whole training process easier.  With my advanced students in our drop in classes, I often recommend that they attend one or two advanced skills classes each week and then one or two regular levels classes each week.  By training this way they can ping pong around the more difficult behaviours and let the power of latent learning work for them.  Wait a minute.  Let the dog think.  Reflect on your work.  Are there holes to fill?  Pecking away at the problem with breaks of days between is often the most effective way to train, and it is a whole lot more fun than getting to the point where you want to drop the printer or get frustrated with your dog.

 

WAIT A MINUTE!