AIRPORT MANNERS

I love to travel, and usually I travel alone. This means that I have spent a fair amount of time in airports all by myself. Now I am a normally social, friendly type of person, and I am never lonely in the airport. If I lack for conversation, I might chat up the clerk in the book store, or say hello to the security guard, or talk to the gate person. If I am sitting in a waiting area and someone sits down next to me, I will say hello and we may strike up a conversation. What I don’t do is rush up to every person I pass by, give them a big hug and a kiss and expect that they will enjoy the interaction! Imagine what travelling might be like for YOU if I behaved this way. I imagine that I might get arrested if I persisted in this sort of behaviour. It certainly would not be a pleasant way for everyone else if I interacted this way.

Young woman at the airport
This is how many dogs interact with absolutely everyone and every other dog. This is not actually appropriate behaviour in the airport, or in public for that matter.

So, what does airport behaviour have to do with moving through life with your dog? I was talking to a client today who was lamenting that her dog used to really enjoy interacting with random dogs in the local park, but who now doesn’t like it much at all. I suspect that there are a number of reasons why she may no longer enjoy interacting with new dogs in public any longer and many of those reasons have to do with what she has experienced with the other dogs she has met, and also with the expectations that have been shown to her over the years.

The dog park is a lot like an airport in many ways. There are a lot of other travellers that your dog has not yet met. There is a lot of chaos and busyness that your dog has to cope with. And there are a whole lot of social conventions your dog has to cope with, both from the other dogs and from the people. There has been a fair amount of discussion in my Facebook feed lately from other professional trainers about what people expect when we teach them in puppy class all about puppy play. One of the things that people seem to be taking away from puppy class is that all dogs must interact with all other dogs every single time that they meet one another! Nothing in fact should be further from the truth.

In puppy class my preference is to have a good amount of free play. This means that the puppies need to be well matched with one another, that the people need to be aware of the signs of distress during play and that play is not required to go on and on and on and on forever. A good puppy play session teaches puppies that dogs who look different from them are safe, and that there is more than just one play style. In good puppy play, we look for evidence of puppies who are confident, and for evidence of those who are not. We look for evidence of pups who are overly forward in their interactions with people and for those who are overwhelmed and shy. Puppy play gives us lots of information about what to do to help these pups develop into the most confident adults they can grow up to be. Puppy play is just that though; play for young dogs. Puppy play is not intended to happen for the rest of the dog’s life!

20140907_121035
The puppies in this class are learning about appropriate behaviour towards one another and towards the people they meet. This does not mean they will be handled by every single person they meet, but rather that they should not worry about a stranger catching their collar, or about other dogs approaching behind them.

Puppy class is a lot like nursery school. For most children nursery school is a lot of fun. You get to play with new toys, and try new experiences, and meet other children. In a good nursery school, you are going to learn things like saying please and thank you, waiting your turn and that kicking your friends is frowned upon. There is a lot of play and some quiet time and some learning time. In a good puppy class, pups should be learning similar lessons.

What you don’t want children to learn in nursery school is that every single person they meet needs a hug and a kiss or that every other child is going to want to play with you all the time. Again, these are lessons we hope puppies will learn in puppy class, but sometimes that message seems to get missed. Here are some things that I have been hearing from clients lately that tell me that we as an industry may not be doing the best job ever at conveying this information.

I have a client who has an older dog who is out of his mind every time he gets to the dog park and is completely out of control. This client didn’t go to puppy school with us, but went to a school where the puppies were placed in an enclosure and the only person in the enclosure was the instructor. The puppies were carried in, and then put on the floor inside the enclosure off leash. This strategy (I had never heard of this before, but apparently it was a thing where they went to puppy class!) virtually guaranteed that every puppy would expect to play as soon as they saw the other dogs. When the dog got old enough to go to the dog park, he was very difficult to handle and would not wait to be let off leash, so my client took to driving to the dog park, and then opening the door and letting the dog out of the car to play. Skip forward four years and this dog screams in anticipation every time they drive towards the dog park. So lesson number one I want my students to know about dog-dog interactions. Don’t let your dogs off leash to play until they are showing some level of self control!

DSCF0056
These three dogs knew one another well and enjoyed hanging out on hikes together. This image was taken early on a day long hike and you can see a lot of what I am looking for in interactions between dogs who are properly prepared for off leash interactions as adults. There is a toy, but no one is getting the group excited by throwing it. The white dog, Wargas, is just watching the yellow dog Phoenix without pressuring him r chasing him. D’fer, my Chesapeake is prancing along enjoying himself with a goofy look on his face. Everyone is relaxed and happy and this is what it should look like. I don’t need to encourage these dogs to “play” because they are adults who know one another well and who interact very normally with one another without my help.

The drill I have for letting a dog off leash to play with his buddies is to stand far enough away from the crowd that my dog is not losing his mind, and then wait for him to look back at me. Looking back at me tells me that there is a connection. When I have this, then I reach down, hold my dog’s collar and unclip the leash. THEN I let my dog off leash to play. In our puppy classes we talk about this a lot because it gives the handler a much better level of control and then you don’t have a dog waiting to hear the snap of the leash clip and bolting. As my dogs learn the game I add in bits of obedience skills before releasing them to play and the really advanced dogs do that part off leash.

The next thing that clients have been telling me about is when their dogs have played for a bit, and they don’t want to continue playing. People spend a lot of time and energy in the dog park telling their dogs to play almost like they are encouraging a child to finish their school work. Dogs and puppies play for between 5 and 10 minutes at a time and then they go do something else. They may come back to play again shortly, but it is not normal in my experience for dogs to play incessantly, UNLESS they have been encouraged to do so. In a large group, dogs will sometimes play sequentially with one partner for a while and then with another partner and then another and so on, but two dogs don’t normally just go on and on and on. Let your dog play. Then let him rest. If he wants to play again, that is fine but he shouldn’t have to. When we encourage our dogs to get back to play as though play is work, we are in fact interrupting their normal social behaviour. If your dog is done after a few minutes, that is perfectly okay.

Somethings are appropriate for children and not adults and of course vice versa. In our puppy classes, we usually have toys out for the pups to play with. If you look at most puppy classes, you will see that there are far more toys than puppies. I had a client come in for help recently because her dog was being snarly at the dog park. I asked if they brought toys to the park, and she replied yes, that she always had a ball. One. She was very put out because the other dogs in the dog park would sometimes steal the ball and her dog was often targeted while they were playing. The problem is that ownership and dogs is fairly clear cut, the fastest, strongest and nastiest dog is often the one with the ball. In fact, I wrote a whole blog just about that; you can find it at https://mrsbehaviour.wordpress.com/2014/09/10/fast-strong-or-nasty/ . My general rule about toys in the dog park is that if an item happens to be available and a dog chooses to engage with it, I will keep an eye on things to make sure that they don’t get out of hand and allow the dogs to play with it. If a person throws an item, or makes a fuss to get their dog to engage with the item, I take my dog out of the equation. In general, toys are appropriate in quantity for puppies, but not for adult dogs.

Another idea that we share in puppy class that seems to cause problems is that your puppy needs to meet as many people as you can find, and as many different people as possible. This is another rule that applies to puppies, but not to adult dogs. When I teach puppy classes my priority is to make sure that your puppy is confident about all the people she will meet as an adult, so until she is about 16 weeks of age, I want her to meet lots of people. That does not mean that I want her to jump on every person that she meets or that I want her to expect treats from everyone either. I want her to see lots of people, doing lots of things and learn that they are safe. When I am socializing a puppy, for the most part, I do the feeding. I will recruit a few people to feed my puppy, but in general, I feed my puppy treats for politely looking and not pulling towards the new person.

IMG_1279
Here D’fer is in the company of his very best dog friend ever. He was excited to see her when they had been apart for a long time, however, he was able to work in her presence without getting excited. This is the goal when we are raising a behaviourally healthy dog. They should be able to learn when one set of behaviours is appropriate and when another is not.

The same thing is true for meeting other dogs. I want young puppies to learn that other dogs are out there, and if I think it is a good idea, they can go say hi. If I don’t think it is a good idea, then taking a pass on meeting a dog should be cool too. I don’t want my dog to be the Walmart greeter of dogs! I want him to be able to walk through a group of dogs as an adult and choose to not pull towards every dog he meets. I think about D’fer, my last chessie as the best example of what that might look like. Deef was my service dog and I remember travelling with him in New York City a few years after 9-11. We were going through Central Station and a whole group of military working dogs came through. These were large, high strung dogs and they were straining on the ends of their leashes ready to go! They caught sight of D’fer and immediately began to bark at him. D’fer was so cool! He just calmly looked up at me. The handlers were brilliant too. They each cued their dogs to stop and come back to heel. Leashes went loose, dogs came back under control, and they passed by. Then the dogs were cued again and they went back to straining on their leashes. It was an elegant example of dogs doing their own work and minding their own business and not engaging in anything they ought not to have been.

On that same trip, D’fer exhibited another behaviour that was spectacular. We went to visit a friend he knew well but he had not seen in several months. This friend, a canine friend, was his very favourite dog ever. When we arrived at our destination, he recognized where we were and he started to pull on his leash. D’fer was very highly trained and rarely pulled on leash, but he was excited to see his friend. This is a time when I did not expect him to mind his manners, because for him, this was much like meeting your Grandmother at the airport. You know who she is, you have been waiting to see her and now that she is here, you are going to jump up and down and hug her. D’fer knew the difference between saying hi to unknown military working dogs, and greeting his very best friend. This is what we need our dogs to learn to do when they are out and about. They need to learn to discriminate between the two situations and behave appropriately in each of them.

Something that is amazing to me is that many of my students seem to miss this distinction. They often get upset when their dogs are happy to see people they know well and worried when their dogs are not happier than they are about strangers. What a mixed up way to be for the dog! In puppy class I want pups to learn to meet people, but not be silly about that, while understanding that when they haven’t seen someone familiar for quite some time, they may be a little silly even though they have been taught how to greet appropriately.

Drug detection labrador dog at the airport searching drugs in the luggages. Horizontal view
As a final note, if you encounter a working dog in the airport, the appropriate behaviour towards it is to walk on by! These dogs are trained to help keep us safe, and interfering with them even to say hello is not appropriate behaviour. They cannot exhibit their best behaviour when we are inappropriate towards them. The same is true of meeting dogs on the street who don’t know you. You don’t need to say hello to every dog you meet, any more than they need to say hello to you.

Out in the wide, wide world is a bit like travelling through the airport. There are people I need to speak to, and I need to do that politely. There are people I am thrilled to see, especially if they are picking me up after a long journey. There are people I need to not interact with. There are also people I need to interact with casually. I need to learn the differences between all of these people and act accordingly. That is what I wish people knew about helping their puppies to learn about the world, about other dogs, dog play, and the many people they will encounter.

AIRPORT MANNERS

YOU SHOULD!

Recently we had the family of one of our Good Dogs give a lecture to us about how they collected data while they trained their dog.  In their presentation they brought up the issue of what they thought they “should” do with their dog, and it reminded us of all the things that our clients do that they are told they “should” do, but for which there may be no real need. How many of us hear a little voice in the back of our head telling us what we “should” do? Should you really do those things?

Many people think that they “should” walk their dogs around their neighbourhoods every day. Should you? Does your dog actually like walking around the block? Most dogs find leash walking very frustrating. We don’t walk at the right speed for dogs, and most dogs don’t want to walk past everything they see. It is very difficult to get enough exercise for your average dog just by leash walking, so that means that you aren’t doing much more than providing a place for your dog to toilet by taking him for a leash walk through the neighbourhood.

If you are actually committed to taking your dog for a neighbourhood walk, you may want to take him for a sniff instead of a walk. To teach him the activity, grab a handful of treats and go out and hide them along your route. You are only going to have to do that once or twice, so don’t worry, this isn’t going to mean a second walk for you. Get your dog on leash, take him outside and point out all the treats you have stashed. The key to this activity is that it is something you do with your dog jointly. It is not you mindlessly walking down the street with your dog sniffing to his heart’s content. A good sniff walk involves you pointing out the things that are important to both of you. When you are pointing out the treats, he is rewarded for following your directions and gets the hang of the activity. Once your dog understands that you are pointing out interesting things, you can start pointing out things other than treats. Try and look for things that would be interesting for a dog to sniff, like the vertical surfaces where another dog may have left some “pee mail”. When you tune into what your dog is interested in, walks become a whole different experience for both of you.

Tagesanbruch
This is what it looks like when I approach a corner with my dogs! If we need to wait as this person does for the oncoming car to pass, then it fine with me if my dog chooses to stand.

How about the idea that dogs “should” stop and sit at every corner? This is one I see people struggle with all the time. I suspect this tradition came from the early days of guide dog work, back in the 1920s when some guide dogs were taught to stop and sit so that the blind person knew where the corner was. There are many different ways that guide dogs signal their person now, but should your pet dog stop and sit? Is it useful? Often it isn’t. I don’t teach this to my own dogs. Most people do this in the hope that if their dog is ever loose, he won’t run across a street, but most dogs don’t make the connection between coming up to the corner on leash and off leash as being the same thing. There are other ways that we can teach the dog to stop at the edge of a street, but those are complex beyond the scope of this blog.

Should your dog sleep in bed with you? Studies show that 60% or more of dogs in North America do! Dogs have likely been sleeping with us for millennia. We have used them as living hot water bottles, for company and to warn us of danger. If you like to sleep with your dog, go ahead. Unless your dog is dangerous to you in bed (I did have one client whose dog attacked them while they were sleeping!), then if you like it, go ahead. There is no reason not to do that.

Spending time together
If this makes your family happy, why wouldn’t you have your dog in bed with you? Only once have I recommended not having the dog in bed with my clients. That dog had night terrors and would attack in his sleep. Otherwise, go ahead if it makes you happy.

How about “should you eat before your dog?” In my life that would often be very inconvenient! Often Friday will eat at 5 in the afternoon at work between classes but John and I don’t eat until 9:30 or 10 when we get home from work. I think some folks think that the dog eating after they do means that they should only feed the dog after they eat, but in our home, that is often inconvenient. Usually one of us will feed the dog or dogs, and the other of us will prepare the meal. When it doesn’t work out that way, our dogs will lie down while we are eating and patiently wait their turn. This takes training but it is reflective of how we live with one another. We value being polite to one another in our home, and that includes the dogs, so when it is not your turn to do something, then you wait politely until it is.

How about “You should always go through the door first?” This one is a particular pet peeve of mine. Often, I want the dogs to go out the door first so that I can see what they are up to, and so that they don’t trip me by rushing up behind me and knocking into me. When I am getting ready to leave, I will often ask the dogs to go out first, but if there is a reason for me to go first, then I just ask them to wait. I do the same thing when I go up or down the stairs, especially if I am carrying something; I decide who goes first and who waits till I am at the top or bottom as may be the case, in the interest of safety.

Girl and dog going down the stairs
It is physically difficult for dogs to go up or down stairs at the same speed we do, so generally, in the house, I will send my dogs up or down ahead of me or ask them to wait so that I can avoid tripping on them. Should you do this? It depends! Would that work for you?

I love the “shoulds”. Should you? Should you never? Always good questions. How about if instead of thinking in terms of “should, you think in terms of “what do you need?” or “how will this work for me?” Should you exercise your dog every day? Does he need it? If he is a healthy, adolescent dog, I would argue that yes, he needs to be exercised every single day. But if he is an adolescent dog who is recovering from hip or knee surgery he may not need to be exercised at all! If he is an elderly dog exercise may cause him harm. If he is an adult dog and has had heartworm disease, exercise may kill him. When your friends and neighbours start saying “you should exercise that dog” and exercising him is not in his best interest, “should” gets bolstered by guilt. And then guilt pushes you into second guessing, and then you get stuck between what you “should” do and what everyone else wants you to do. Many years ago, I had a client who had a 7 month old husky. The dog was in desperate need of exercise, but the man had been in a car accident when the dog was only 5 months old. My client had a trach tube, and thus could not go out in our cold winter weather. The vet told him that he “should” exercise the dog. I went in and helped this nice man meet his dog’s need for exercise by doing stretches, slow stair walking, searches in the house, and puppy push ups. Was it ideal? No, but it was what was the most appropriate for my client. Never the less, the neighbours left him a nasty note in his mailbox one day when the dog howled while he was out, accusing him of not exercising his dog. Should gets in the way of a lot of things, including being aware of what you actually need, or what you can actually do.

There are a few things that I think every dog family “should” do. You should get good preventive veterinary care for your dogs. You should see who your dog actually is and what he actually needs so that you can actually meet his needs. You should make sure that he is properly socialized as a puppy so that he can have the best life possible. You should keep your dog up to date on his shots. You should give your dog an education so that he can cope with the world he lives within. My list of shoulds are things that lead to better overall health and welfare for your dog and your life instead of a list of rules to follow in the hopes that your dog will fit into someone else’s mould of what living with a dog is intended to look like. Many of the “shoulds” come to us from police, military and service dog training where the dogs have very specific roles and what is interesting is that these rules may have been accurate for a period of time long ago, but are no longer useful for our current lives.

When you are living with a dog, look at what works for you and your dog. Look at what fills your needs. And leave should for another dog family; “should” does not need to govern your or your dog’s life.

 

YOU SHOULD!

A ROSE MIGHT SMELL AS SWEET BUT A DOG MIGHT NOT

Originally published April 2013

Naming trends in pets are fascinating.  I remember the year my friend got a puppy and spent four days trying to decide on a special and unique name for her dog.  After choosing Bailey she was shocked to go to puppy class with two other Baileys and was further surprised when her daughter went to kindergarten later that year with two little girls named Bailey.  Her efforts at a name that was really different were not successful, but offered an interesting opportunity to think about names and naming and what happens when we choose a particular name.

One of the local vets and I got to chatting one day and we both observed the same thing.  When Sam or Ranger or Rosie comes in, we don’t worry a whole lot right off the bat about the dog’s behaviour.  But when Satan, Danger, Mr. Ferocious, Ugly or Butts comes in we do.  We also worry when Muffin, Sweetie, Cuddles, and Mrs. Love Bug is on the roster.  The question is why do we worry about Dr. Evil and Fluffy?

57369353 - grey shepherd grins in the house
This dog looks pretty unhappy! If his name is Satan or Fluffy, then I am going to be more concerned than if his name is something neutral such as Frank.

When we name an animal, some of the names that we choose are associated with emotions.  When you call your dog a name that is disrespectful, you give those who interact with your dog permission to be disrespectful of him.  Imagine for a moment what it might be like to live your life with a name like “Ugly” or “Butthead”.  Even if you didn’t know what Butthead meant, the way that people behaved towards you would tell you that you were not respected.

When an animal carries the name of a political figure who is associated with a time that was painful to many (I have met several dogs named Hitler or Stalin), we tell people something profound about how we feel about our pet and what our expectation might be of that animal’s life.  What we name our pet is sometimes a reflection of our own intolerance, hatred, fear, bigotry or trauma.  Naming a dog after someone who has done something evil, is not a sign of respect for your dog, and it isn’t cool either.  If someone has named their dog after a political historical figure who is an enemy I believe it is not as difficult for them to then choose harsher methods of training and to treat their dogs in ways that are unkind.

At the other end of the spectrum, naming your dog something that downplays who he is or might be can backfire too.  I was once pinned against someone’s refrigerator a hundred pounds of dog named Muffin had a long list of people he had bitten and he was employed as the resident guard dog in a junkyard.  His owners only sought help for him after he bit one of their adult children.  It was chilling how they introduced this dog.  They wanted people to think he was harmless so that when burglars tried to break into the junkyard, they would not expect to be attacked by Muffin.  They had taught this dog to be perfectly still when approached but to never tolerate anyone touching him and to chase anyone running away from him.  This was a very frightening dog, and the owners thought it was funny to tell visitors to their business that they need not fear Muffin…unless they misbehaved.  This twisted name and expectation lead to a number of really difficult issues, and amongst them was the owner’s perception of the dog as essentially harmless.

We have three dogs.  D’fer is a silly name, and it is a play on Dee For Dog.  D’fer Dawg.  It is silly but not disrespectful.  A bit like my husband’s nickname for me; Boo.  It is silly and reflects a playful part of our relationship.  When we first started to work together, he stopped calling me Boo for a while because he didn’t want our students to think less of me; he was sensitive to the issues that surround how people are perceived.  D’fer’s registered name is Deifenbaker’s Pride of Oakhill, so his nick name fits too; we often call him Deef.  Prime Minister Deifenbaker was a pretty serious dude, but no one would consider him to have been the center of a genocide, so even if we called him by his full name, we would be respectful of him.

20150206_135130
D’fer was a silly name, but it didn’t make anyone worry about how he might behave. Usually he was a pretty silly dog too! This is one of my favourite pictures of my silly dog when he was very elderly.

Our second dog is named Eco.  His registered name is Amicus Eco Von Narnia.  Narnia is the name of the kennel he was born at and we used the latin Amicus because we wanted him to be friendly and Eco is the Greek for home.  Eco is his call name, and again, it is a strong name that is not frightening or belittling.

Our third dog, Friday is named for a fictional character from a book by the same name.  The character is a strong, sensitive and caring woman who can take care of herself.  We were careful to choose a name that would be respectful of who we hoped she would turn out to be.

Dr. Marty Becker, the vet who is on Good Morning America for many years, says that asking the client why they chose the name for their pet is one of the first questions he asks in his initial consults.  He feels it gives really good information about what expectations people have for their pets.  I have found this to be very true.  When I have a client who comes in with a dog named Doug, and ask, and they tell me that their kids have not turned the movie “UP” off in the past six months and they wanted a dog who was going to be a good friend, maybe a little scattered, who would do things with the family, then I know I am working with people who are on the right track with their goals and aspirations for their family pets.  When I meet a family with a dog name Alpha from the same movie, I worry a little and ask more questions to find out if they have expectations that are in line with the dog they have and the life they want to live.

There are a few names that are neither belittling or disrespectful that I suggest people would avoid.  Long ago I knew a family who had a beautiful Golden Retriever named Fire.  Fire was well trained, and moved as fast as a lick of flame out in the field.  Fire’s name wasn’t a problem until he got lost one night while the family was staying in at a relatives.  It just isn’t a great idea to go running through a strange neighbourhood calling “Fire! Fire!”

A ROSE MIGHT SMELL AS SWEET BUT A DOG MIGHT NOT

NEVER MIND “LEAVE IT.” “TAKE IT!”

Originally posted April 2013

This week I posted an image on my Facebook page of one of the dogs in our class doing an automatic leave it.  In our group classes, we store all of our treats on the floor in front of the dogs.  When a dog tries to snatch a treat out of a hand, we just close our hand around the treat and wait for him to ask more appropriately to get that treat.  The first thing we teach all of our puppies is that rude behaviour gets you nothing or a time out, and good behaviour allows you to ask for what you want and to get that.  A colleague commented that likely “it all has to do with the overall amortizing of value the dog has to the handler versus the quality of treats” and I disagreed.  Here is why.

When we train we use food in two ways.  Firstly as a currency to communicate what we want the dog to learn.  If we want the dog to learn to sit on cue then we “pay” the dog in treats every time he sits and then we increase our criterion so that we only pay when we ask the dog to do something.  This is a very simplistic situation and I think if we stop at that point in our use of food we short change ourselves and our dogs.  The second way we use food in training is as a joint goal that the dog and handler get to together.  I think of training beyond the basics as a maze that I am negotiating with my dog to get to an end goal.

Given that we use food in these two ways, we have to start out by teaching the dog that food has value and he can get it if he does something.  I use a tool that most modern trainers are familiar with as “doggy zen”.  I put the dog on a leash so he cannot leave, and then I hold out my hand with a treat on it, just under my dog’s nose, so that he could if he wanted, take it.  Most dogs will immediately try for the treat.  As soon as I see the dog try for the treat, then I close my hand around it.  The dog controls what happens; if he hesitates, I leave my hand open and if he tries to get the treat, I close my hand.  When I can leave my hand open for a count of three I say take it and put the treat in the dog’s mouth.  Some dogs actually try not to take the treat at all at this point, but I make sure they get it.  We usually start with REALLY high value treats.  Once the dog understands not to snatch things out of hands, we do this with items on floors, on tables, on chairs, and so on, until the dog understand that he must stay back in order to get what he wants.  And if you are paying attention at this point, you should notice something very significant about what I have not done.  I have NOT said “leave it”.  I feel that leave it is actually a big problem for many pets and their people.

I am going to switch tracks here and use a little story to explain why “Leave it” is a problem.  Imagine for a moment you have been given tickets to a very fancy event; say a play.  It is ultra swank.  It is an all inclusive, get dressed up, have your hair done, fancy live theater event, and part of the event is hors d’ouvres at intermission.  At intermission, you and your absolutely stunning date, who is equally spiffed up as you are, get out of your seats and go to the lobby.  In the lobby you will find penguins.  The guys dressed in the fancy black and white serving outfits, holding lovely trays of canapés, and little bits of cheese on crackers, and some delicious fish and strawberry thing.  And your date breaks into a run, bashes into the first penguin he encounters, grabs the tray with one hand, and with his free hand starts grabbing hands full of the food on the platter and shoving it into his mouth.  Implausible?

46512615 - server holding a tray of appetizers at a banquet
It is generally considered very bad form to tackle the penguin and eat all the appetizers at a fancy party! Most of us know this and help ourselves to one or two things and leave the rest for the next people who show up!

This is how I think most dogs approach food; it is so rare and valuable and so hard to get to that when they see an opportunity, they go for it.  And what does the handler do?  “Leave it.  Fluffy, leave it.  Leave it, Fluffy.  LEAVE IT!  I said LEAVE IT!”  And then Fluffy takes the item anyhow.  Why did Fluffy disregard the human’s request?  Simply because Fluffy knows that leave it is a signal that she won’t have a chance to get what she wants.  It is in effect, a no reward marker.  It says “no matter what you do, you cannot have that”.  Leave it is the cue used in the moment to moment bits of life that you encounter with your dog to tell him that he cannot have what he wants, even though he has been minding his manners all the way along.

Going back to your date, imagine for a moment that you knew what he or she did to penguins at parties.  So as you get up you remind your date to be polite.  Your date, being the cooperative person they are agrees that this time they are going to be polite to the penguins.  You remind them not to rush the penguin.  You remind your date that everyone will get a turn.  Does this sound like a date you want to spend time with?  This is the contract that I see being made more often than not with the dogs and handlers that I encounter.

Coming back to “take it,” let’s think for a moment about a service dog.  I use a service dog to navigate the world.  When I go grocery shopping he is often faced with delicious food, right at nose level, or food on the floor.  Before we ever went out into the public, I taught him that he could have anything he wanted if he asked for it nicely, although sometimes he would have to wait.  I could not go through the grocery store and identify items one by one that he could not have.  He cannot have the soup that slopped on the floor outside the deli, or the cheese that is on the shelf at nose height or the bread and baked goods that are shelved in his reach.  He cannot have the cookie that the little boy is waving as he walks by us either.  He can ask, and I might say yes, or I might say later or I might say no.  When he was a young dog, I usually said “I have something better” and gave him a tidbit that was appropriate for him.  He asked, and I wanted to make him certain that I would listen any time he asked for something.  In that moment, I was using food at the currency to teach him to ask me for things he wanted.

Over time, I would sometimes say “later” and give him a tidbit every few times.  I would also begin cuing behaviours he really liked when he asked for things.  So if my dog asked for the crouton that fell on the floor in the bulk food aisle, I might say “not now, but if you want you can carry your leash for a moment”, a behaviour he really liked doing.  And over time, he generalized that if he REALLY wanted to have something, ask and I would listen and if I could, I might give it to him.

dscf0086
One of the constant challenges of travelling with a service dog was simply that people would drop food in the train or on the plane, and my dog could not avoid either having it dropped on him or lying right next to something edible. I never had to remind D’fer not to eat things because I didn’t teach him to leave it; I taught him that nothing was available to him unless I told him he could take it!

The next thing I teach dogs when I am training is that the click predicts the treat.  I increase the time between my click and my treat to about thirty seconds, but between the click and the treat, my dog and I are working TOGETHER as a team to get to the food treat.  I start by standing right beside a table of treats.  I click, reach and treat, and then repeat.  Then I take a step away from the table, and I click and we walk back together to get the treat.  Then I do two steps and so on.  With my own dogs I will often take them out on the farm and I will click, run with them to the other end of the farm, and get a treat, and then click and run back and get another treat.  I want to increase the time between the click and the treat so that when I am working in a condition where I cannot immediately treat, everything following the click is part of the reinforcement cycle.  I once as an experiment at a conference clicked my dog for a behaviour and then left the ballroom we were in, walked down a hall, across a lobby, to the elevators, waited for an elevator, went up to the 8th floor, walked down a long hall way, opened my hotel room door, took my dog off leash, went to the bathroom and when I was finished, he was sitting by the treat bin on the dresser.  He understands that clicks predict treats and treats may come much later.  This is essential (although most dogs don’t need to be able to wait that long) to teaching a dog that they can rely on me to follow through with the treat, which is the step when food stops being a currency and starts being something we are both working towards.  We are a team.  Yes, I use treats as currency but once I have established a number of behaviours I don’t use it as a currency as much as a goal my dog and I work towards together.

I will often when I am travelling and I order food, order something for my service dog.  I order things like doughnut holes at coffee shops, and sugar cookies in delis.  Over time, my dog has learned that if I pay and put the item in my pocket it is his later.  By using doggy zen and take it instead of leave it, my dog has learned to ask.  By using clickers and delaying the treat, my dog has learned to wait.  This way I can eat my meal in a restaurant and my dog can look at the fry on the floor under the table and ask me, “can I have that?” and I can say yes or no.

What I have described above is a significant part of how we work with our students and their dogs in our classroom.  In our Levels classroom, all the students put their treats out within reach of any off leash dog.  We don’t start everyone off leash, but it comes very quickly; in under a month, most dogs can work around treat bowls and because of the philosophy, the feedback we get about this is that this carries over outside of the classroom.  See the video below for an example of a typical day in our classroom.

When you start looking at more complex situations as situations where you and your dog are working together to get to a goal, then you build relationship with your dog.  Perhaps the biggest criticism I have seen of operant conditioning is that it is about manipulating your learner into doing things for you.  Certainly it is a model that will allow you to increase or decrease behaviours, but that is just the start.  We would hardly say that a child should not learn the foundations to reading and arithmetic because in the end we don’t want him to just recognize letters and numbers.  In the end we want children to be able to grow up and use what they learn in very broad contexts.  Once I have a foundation of behaviours built on a currency, then I can use those behaviours to do meaningful activities with my dog.  Regardless of what that is, if you look at the behaviours you ask your dog to do as a joint project together that has meaning for both of you, then you don’t need the food itself to get things done, and you don’t need to wave the steak under the dog’s nose get him to do something.  When you have worked carefully at teaching your dog both that he can have what he wants and that you are working with him to get it, then you have a cooperative partner instead of a dog who is scouting the world for things that he can get if he is only fast enough to get it before you utter the magic leave it words.  And THAT is the goal of teaching take it instead of leave it!

NEVER MIND “LEAVE IT.” “TAKE IT!”

DRIVING A FERRARI LIKE A TRACTOR

NOTE:  I began this blog about 7 years ago when I first sustained my head injury, and I never finished it.  I have a number of these in the queue, as you may notice if you read about Eco or D’fer who have since died.

I recently purchased a car.  It is a smaller SUV and I really like it.  I can put all my camping gear in it, and it is easy on gas and John and I can now each get to and from work without re-arranging our schedules to an overwhelming extent.  I could have purchased a sports car, but it would not do what I needed it to do; take me camping.  And I could have purchased a tractor, but it also would not do what I needed it to do; get me to and from work in a timely manner.  I chose a car that would suit my needs.  Dogs are a bit like cars in that different dogs have different traits. 

Red 1962 Ferrari 250 GT California Spyder
A Ferrari would not be my first choice for ploughing a field or pulling something out of a ditch. If I wanted a vehicle that was highly responsive, very fast and pretty flashy, it would be a good choice.

I like fast, drivey, intense dogs.  I also like my lawn tractor.  You cannot treat a lawn tractor like a fast drivey dog, and you cannot treat a drivey dog like a lawn tractor.  I meet a lot of people in my line of work who greatly admire my big, black, fast, responsive dog and who would like one just like him.  Or they think they would like one just like him.  The problem is that they want to drive this dog the way they would drive a tractor. 

Drivey dogs, or dogs who are intensely passionate about doing things can be a lot of fun.  They can be exciting to watch as they race through their routines, pushing towards their own excellence in whatever discipline they excel in.  My dog excels at the protection phase of Schutzhund (sadly, I do not have the same skill or drive as he does or we would be competing!), and when the sleeve comes out a whole new gear sets in.  One of my staff describes it as similar to driving a tractor from across the lawn, which is what prompted this blog.

When you work with Eco, he is always looking for the next cue, the next piece of information, the next job.  He is almost one step ahead of me, and we have worked together for almost five years now.  When someone who is new to him works with him, they really have to be on their toes, because if you work slowly and methodically with him, he quickly looses interest and goes off to do his own thing.  Usually what he does under his own steam is to bark at the handler, bark at another dog, run around the room and search for Frisbees or Tugs or generally cause general mayhem.  With an experienced handler, he is quick and responsive, engaged and lively and a whole lot of fun.  Eco is a Ferrari when it comes to handling.  Fast, responsive and likely to get you in trouble if you aren’t paying attention.

Not too long ago, I trained a service dog for a lady.  This dog, a black lab, was a tractor of a dog.  She likes working a lot.  She is keen and willing, but not terrifically fast.  She drove me a bit nuts because she doesn’t drive much like a sports car.  She handles a lot more like a tractor.  She does the job, promptly, efficiently and carefully, but she is not the least interested in speed or manoeuvrability.  On the other hand, this dog is perfectly suited to the work that the lady needed her to do.

All too often I see people who are attracted to the Ferrari type of dog, but who are really better equipped to drive the tractor type of dog.  So what happens?  Much of the time, the Ferrari dog ends up being frustrated because his needs are not being met.  And often the people are equally frustrated because the dog is doing much more than they expected he would do.

90333638 - a belgian malinois sheepdog lying in the grass he does not move
Everything about this Malinois says “I am on my toes and ready to go”. The Malinois is a Ferrari type of dog and that is why they are often used in sports like protection, agility and herding.

 

Consider a client I met with recently.  They had seen a demo with a Malinois in it.  The Malinois they met was a stable, easy going dog, or so they thought.  They watched this dog do agility, protection, obedience, tracking and sheep herding.  They heard about how this dog was trained to do other sports too such as Rally and treibball.  They got to know the dog for about five minutes after a show, and they were smitten.  They went right out and found a Malinois breeder who would sell them a dog and ship it across the country.  By the time that I saw the family, they had a terrible mess on their hands!

Their Malinois was nothing like the one they had met at the show.  Where the dog they met showed an extraordinary amount of self control, their dog seemed to be all over the map, snatching treats and toys any time he could and snapping at the heels of people passing on the side walk.  The Malinois they met was relaxed and chill after his demo, lying on the floor at his owner’s feet, happily observing the world around him.  In the two hour appointment we had to assess this dog’s behaviour, he rarely stopped moving and was often just racing around the training hall at full speed. 

“What is wrong with him?” I was asked.  “Nothing” I replied after taking a full history.  And indeed this was a very normal, untrained, barely socialized, under exercised and under stimulated high drive Ferrari of a dog!  This family would have been very happy with a tractor of a Labrador.  Yes, labs can come in a Ferrari version, and yes, Malinois can come in tractor versions, but the normal state of affairs for these two breeds is that Malinois are very active and driven dogs and Labs are active, but not so active that you cannot live with them and usually they are much more willing to follow along and do whatever it is that your family is into doing.

So, what do you do if you find yourself with a Ferrari of a dog when your life is all about tractors?  First and foremost, recognize that the dog doesn’t have a choice about the genes he was born with.  Some of us are hardwired to be out of doors and active more often than not.  Some of us are hardwired to be less active and may not enjoy the outdoor life nearly as much.  Some of us are wired one way and want to be something else, and this is kind of what it is like to live with a Ferrari when you are more of a tractor type.  I would love to be the kind of person who enjoys going to cocktail parties in a dress and heels, and although I can pull it off, I don’t really enjoy myself.

The first thing to do is to recognize that you live with a Ferrari.  Or if you are a Ferrari type of trainer, and have a tractor, recognize that too.  There is no amount of motivating that is going to make your mastiff as responsive as a border collie, and there is no amount of relaxation that is going make your Doberman enjoy watching the world slide on by your window for more than a short period of time.  Recognizing who your dog is, is the first step to making the most out of his innate talents. 

The next step is recognizing that you may have to compromise on your dreams.  My client with the Malinois was looking for a family pet.  They wanted a dog who would be happy in the house, getting daily leash walks, and hanging out while the family barbequed in the back yard.  They had no idea how much work went into training a dog like the one they met to do all the things he did.  Once they recognized that their dog was not a tractor, they needed to step up and make some changes in order to meet his needs.  Something that is important to recognize is that your dog did not ask to live in your home.  Once you have chosen the dog, you cannot get upset that he is anything other than what he is. 

The changes my clients had to make included teaching their dog that other dogs and people were safe.  This was a fairly long job, that would have been easier if they had done so when he was young.  Next they had to add a skills training session into their dog’s life every day.  It didn’t take long, but it was an every day activity.  Then they had to start exercising him properly and for an active herding breed, this is a pretty big task.  We started out by running him on trails while dragging a long line.  As he gained skills like coming when called, and making friends, we added him to our walking group and the starting going out on regular hikes with “doggy friends”. 

This particular Ferrrari was really lucky.  As it turned out, the teen aged daughter in the family caught the training bug, and she began to take him to regular training classes twice a week.  Then she tried out an agility class with a colleague of mine.  Then she went to a herding weekend.  From there, she got serious!  For a Ferrari type of dog, this was exactly what he needed.  Although he was always somewhat suspicious of new people and other dogs, he lived a very normal life, and the family was happy with him in the end and I would say he was pretty happy with them too.

Livestock guarding dog
This Kangal or Anatolian Shepherd Dog is a good example of a tractor. He can and sometimes does run fast, but he was bred to pretty low key. His job is to hang out with the sheep, day and night (these are a short haired breed of meat sheep). Unlike a Ferrari type of herding dog that races around and moves the sheep, he blends in with the herd, and is only fierce and active if a predator or thief is threatening the flock. Mostly, he just hangs out, and that makes him a really poor choice for sports that require a dog to follow your directions quickly.

I think that it can be harder for a tractor caught in a Ferrari world.  I rarely see this kind of client in my behaviour practice and when I have spoke to these clients about their experiences most often, they tell me that they feel silly that they cannot motivate their dogs to do the things they enjoy.  Sometimes they tell me that when their tractor turned two, they went out in search of a Ferrari to keep them busy in the training world while their tractor was content to snooze his life away on the back porch.  Many tractor type dogs love a great walk, and they can for a very short period of time look exactly like a Ferrari, but for the very most part, they live and breath to rest.  What breeds might typically be thought of as tractors?  Many of the short faced breeds like the English Bulldog, the Pug and the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel.  A lot of the mastiffs, and the livestock guardians are too.  Yes, they can have short periods of time where they run and race, but they aren’t tuned in to go off like a firecracker and stay focused and dedicated to a job over time.  Those dogs are often the herding dogs, some of the retrievers, many of the pointers and some of the working breeds.

The take away is to know what you are looking for in a dog, and whatever dog comes into your life, to recognize what sort of personality he is, and meet his needs, whatever they might be.

 

DRIVING A FERRARI LIKE A TRACTOR

THE BARE NAKED DOG

Originally posted April 2013

echo5june2011-6
Bare Naked And Beautiful!  Photo: Melanie Wooley

Recently a competing dog training school posted pictures of their graduating class to their Facebook page.   The album featured six smiling families with their dogs in a sit and a graduation certificate and individual brags beside picture.  On five out of the six dogs, they were obviously wearing prong collars.  Interesting.  Two of the six dogs showed clear signs of distress and one dog appeared to be really frightened.  All the people were wearing big smiles and the instructor made a point that he was graduating six well trained dogs.  Hmmm.  Why do six well trained dogs all need prong collars?  And why do well trained dogs look so stressed?  Could it be that the people feel that their dogs are under control by virtue of the equipment that they wear?

Jumping back twenty years or so, I remember when the leash laws first came into Guelph.  There was a lot of publicity about dogs being leashed on a leash that was no more than two metres in length and being under control without a lot of information about what exactly under control meant.  One fine summer day, I was out in the park in a legitimate off leash area with my dog off leash.  Being a dog trainer, I was doing what I am prone to doing; I was training my dog.  I left him on a sit stay, and walked about 50 metres away.  A woman came along with her two kids and stopped dead and then began to scream at me to get my dog under control.  Fifty metres away, my dog sat panting and looking around, and this woman continued her tirade about dangerous dogs.  My leash was around my shoulders as it usually is, and my dog was relaxed and I was really confused.  At first I protested that my dog WAS under control.  This seemed to rev the woman up even more.  After several minutes of this, I called my dog and she and the children began to shriek.  My dog came and I leashed up and the woman finally relaxed a tiny amount and told me that the new law required my dog to be under control.  I had an aha moment.  By under control, she meant ON LEASH.  Under control means something entirely different to me.

19204095 - running beagle puppy with his master on the walk
This puppy is off leash, outdoors and running, but he is STILL under control. His intense focused look is just what we expect to see in a puppy learning to come when called!

When I first started to offer dog training classes I mostly had my students using the traditional chain slip collar that we now understand can cause a lot of injuries.  I don’t use them any longer and don’t allow them on my training grounds.  The risk of injury to my students’ dogs is just too high, and I think that they really gave us a false sense of what it meant to be under control.  When control is entirely reliant on stopping bad behaviours from happening, then we aren’t actually teaching dogs to have self control; we are teaching them that if they do things we don’t want, they will get hurt.  Again, I have to reflect that as a society we have a funny way of thinking about “control”.  We spent most of our time teaching the dogs what they could not do and how badly we could hurt them if they stepped out of line.

In my introduction to dog training class, I had an activity that I did with one of my own dogs.  I dressed him up in every piece of dog training equipment I owned.  I put on a halter and a harness, a chain collar, a flat buckle collar, a martingale, a dog coat and a prong on him.  I would put him through his paces and one by one take all the equipment off.  I would point out to my audience that my dog was happy to work bare naked.  I did a lot of work with that dog and it was wonderful exciting happy work, even though I started him on a pain based system.  What I learned with that particular dog is that it is not the equipment.  It is the relationship.  Control doesn’t depend upon the collar, it is reliant on the relationship.

Relationship is what really creates a dog under control.  At Dogs in the Park, we start all of our dogs on flat buckle collars and two metre leashes, and we do the first few classes with the dogs tethered to the wall.  We recognize that we are not starting with dogs who have self control or even owner directed control.  We work towards getting the dogs off the wall as quickly as we can.  We want the dogs to be successful and the people to be successful too, so we take out the variable in the equation of the dog making the wrong choice.  We tether and work on SELF control.

Dog with ill eyes pulling leash walking at winter park
I am much more concerned about this on leash dog than I would be about the off leash puppy above. Everything about this dog tells me that he doesn’t want to be with the person on the end of the leash and that he is pretty intent on getting to where he wants to go. Being in control has nothing to do with the equipment the dog is wearing and everything to do with the amount of education that dog has, the relationship he has to the person he is working with and the situation that the people have put him into.

My dog out in the park was demonstrating self control.  He was controlling his impulse to go and run up and say hi to the kids.  He was controlling his impulse to go to the river to swim.  He was controlling his impulse to lie down.  My dog was in control of himself and he was doing what I wanted him to do; he was minding his manners and staying where I had left him.  This is the level of self control that is easy to live with.  I didn’t have to worry about this dog pulling people over; he wouldn’t dream of pulling on leash.  I didn’t have to worry about him leaving either; he knew that staying was the game at the moment.  In training, that is the goal.  A well trained dog is a dog who is happy and confident and who will mind his manners, even if he is bare naked.

Getting from the point of being tethered to the wall and learning to not take treats and to not knock people over when they come in to greet to being able to be left on a sit stay or a down stay at fifty metres does not need to be painful for the dog, but it is an important step in developing self control.  It should in fact be fun for everyone.  At home, you should be doing most of your training off leash.  The leash is a great tool but it is only a tool and it is not about great training.  It is what we use when we must, not what actually teaches the dog to do something.  What actually teaches the dog to do things is not the equipment he wears or the words that you say, but the direct outcomes of his own behaviour.

The key to getting from point A, the dog who is out of control to point B the dog who will do distance stays while his person is being screamed at is a process of steps.  Seeing the pictures of the graduating class of the other school reminded me of how important steps and stages are.  At the very beginning, I have to acknowledge that the dog does not understand what I want.  If pain is the tool we choose to explain this to the dog, then we need to be able to set the dog up to learn quickly and efficiently that there is a way to avoid pain.  The pain should be minimal and rare and the dog should understand how to not get hurt.  In the old days when I was first learning to train we would do set ups where we would set the dog up to fail so that he could learn that he would be hurt if he made the wrong choice.  I realize now, especially when I look at pictures and video from those days that my dog was often concerned about being right and worried that she would get hurt.  The picture of the graduation class brought home some pretty strong memories for me, some of which I am not entirely proud of.

Now when I look at the journey from point A to point B, I ask myself if the dog is relaxed and happy.  If the dog is relaxed, then I know that he understands what I want him to do.  I look not only at if the dog can do the skill, but also if the dog is comfortable about it.  If the dog is not comfortable I reassess what I am asking him to do.  When we start a dog in training at Dogs in the Park, they start on the wall and we ask the question; “are you comfortable enough to take treats?”  If the answer is yes, then we ask “are you comfortable enough to click and treat?”  If the answer to that is yes, then we ask “are you comfortable enough to refrain from taking treats when you should not?” and if the answer is yes, we ask the question “are you comfortable enough to offer behaviours?”  If we get a no, then we work with the client to determine what we need to do to make the dog feel safe and comfortable enough to work in our classroom.  We ask the dog.

Training is not just about skills acquisition.  It is also about the emotional state of the dog, and the relationship that the dog has with you.  When a dog feels confident about you and the work you are doing, he is eager and keen to try new things.  He doesn’t look worried or concerned.  He doesn’t look like something might go wrong at any moment.  When a dog feels confident about what he is doing he is willing to engage in things with you, and that is what partnership is about.  It is not just about skills acquisition at all; it is about everything that the dog is thinking about and experiencing including how the dog is working with you.

So I come full circle back to the graduation pictures that my competitor posted.  The people look thrilled and proud.  Half the dogs look relaxed.  The instructor describes his clients and their dogs as well trained dogs and people.  But three of the six dogs look unhappy and at least five of the six dogs are wearing devices that operate on pain.  None of the dogs is looking at his person as though that person was interesting or cool.  This is where we started at Dogs in the Park.  I am really glad we moved on to where we are now.  The pictures I post of my clients don’t show a whole lot of graduations.  We don’t graduate dogs anymore.  We celebrate when they achieve levels.  And we see a lot more happy and a lot fewer stressed dogs.  I am really proud of what we are doing here, and I hope my students are just as proud of themselves; our dogs learn skills and they also learn about partnership and relationship and trust.  And when you dog trusts that you have his back, he will do nearly anything for you.  One step at a time, towards a goal that is meaningful for both of you.  I am so glad my competition posted their pictures.  Sometimes I just need some confirmation that I am heading in the right direction.

THE BARE NAKED DOG

WE GOT HIM FOR THE KIDS!

Originally posted April 2013

The family dog probably has one of the world’s most difficult jobs.  Compare life as a family dog to life as a herding dog.  Every morning, the herding dog wakes up with the sheep, guides them to pasture and moves them from place to place.  Between times, the dog rests and relaxes and at meal times goes up to the house to get a meal.  The family dog however gets up with mom or dad earlier than the kids and likely goes out to the bathroom, and for many family dogs, that is the last predictable thing that happens all day.  The kids get up, and Michael, eight, who is supposed to feed the dog,  has a throat infection.  Sally, ten, has a report due at school and she wants to spend time finishing that instead of taking the dog out for his morning play session.  Mom has to reschedule her morning meeting with the lawyer so that she can take Michael to the doctor and she is busy hustling Sally through her report and breakfast so that she can make the bus.  Dad is in the kitchen making breakfast so that Sally and Mom can get their mornings started but the griddle won’t heat up and he has a bowl full of pancake batter sitting on the counter and all the other frying pans are dirty.  He puts the pancake mix in the fridge and gets out cold cereal, all while Michael is complaining that he can’t eat because his throat is sore.  Meanwhile, the dog is bugging Michael for his breakfast and Mom and Dad are so frazzled that it doesn’t immediately occur to them them that Michael is feeling so crummy that he hasn’t gotten to feeding the dog.  The day often devolves from there.

Yes, the dog gets fed and he gets walked, but often the expectations we have for family pets is a little out of line with reality for the pet.  Often I hear “Fluffy belongs to the kids, and she is their responsibility”.  I am certain that most parents don’t really think that Fluffy is entirely the kid’s responsibility, but too often it is presented as though the dog is their whole responsibility.  If we re-framed this about a younger sibling things would look much different.

Imagine for a moment we weren’t talking about Fluffy but rather Ryan, Michael and Sally’s younger sibling.  Imagine for a moment that Mom and Dad got up in the morning and changed young Ryan’s diaper, and then it was Michael’s responsibility to feed young Ryan and Sally’s responsibility to get him dressed and ready for the day.  The idea that an eight  year old and a ten year old would be responsible for a young child is appalling, and yet we hear this regularly in our puppy classes.  In one family, if the child did not feed the dog, he went hungry.  And if the other children didn’t toilet the dog outside, they had to live with the mess inside until one of the children took it upon themselves to clean it up, usually with much nagging and screaming on the part of the other members of the household.

I am a person who strongly believes that we don’t give your youth enough freedom and responsibility in our society.  As a Scout leader for many years, I was constantly faced with boundaries that we were not permitted to allow our kids to cross, often limits that made little or no sense.  When one of my groups of kids wanted to go bowling I helped them to plan the trip and reminded these 14 to 17 year old kids that they needed to figure out how they were going to pay for the trip.  No one wanted to confront the issue, so in spite of weekly reminders, they never sorted that aspect out.  On the day of the trip we all gathered and they had no money to go.  I let the group work out how they wanted to resolve it.  One of the parents stood to the side very agitated feeling that I was being unfair to the kids when he could just give them the money they needed.  I gave the kids the chance to figure out a solution, which they did.  A phone call was made and the group committee arranged to drop off the funds needed (we had arranged this ahead of time).  The desire to not let the kids miss out on something they hadn’t planned for was so strong that the parents in attendance would have bailed the kids out before they solved their problem.  I absolutely believe that kids should be permitted to fail early and often and develop resilience and problem solving abilities early.  I just don’t believe that should be done at the expense of a pet’s well being.

When a family gets a dog, the adults need to understand that it is the family dog, not the kid’s dog.  Rarely do six and seven year old kids have the resources to research an appropriate breed, purchase, arrange transport to and from the breeder, arrange and pay for veterinary visits and do all the training of a young dog.  I love having kids in class, and to make it successful we have to take a number of things into account.  First and foremost, we have to understand what a child is capable of.

Preschoolers are not capable of walking your mastiff, no matter how cute it might be in theory.  A large or giant breed dog needs only to walk quickly to knock down and drag a young child.  With preschoolers we teach them in class that they must ask their own guardians and then the dog’s person before offering to greet the dog.  If the dog chooses to back away, then the greeting is a no go, and that should be the end of it.  Often preschoolers are not as interested in greeting the dog as Mom and Dad are in having the kid greet.  Many years ago, when I was training the first service dog I ever trained, I was out in the mall with him and a mom with her toddler spotted us.  “Look” she said; “A doggy, in the mall!”  I kept walking.  The child was in her arms and clearly not interested.  She followed us down the length of the mall, through a crowded bookstore and into a coffee shop all the while babbling to her kid about the doggy in the mall, describing him, and his jacket and that he was inside the mall.  Finally the child showed interest, and she offered him the chance to pet the dog.  After this whole scene played out, I turned to face her and said “I am sorry, this is a working service dog and you may not pet him”.  Her response was interesting.  She turned beet red and said “Some people have NO manners” and left in a huff with her now screaming child.

Preschoolers are a slightly difficult group because they are interested in the world, but in short bursts.  They don’t need to have long periods of interaction to be successful.  If they are not initially interested in the dog, there is lots of stuff that we can do to make them safe around dogs other than interacting with them.  In general, my guideline for working with preschoolers and dogs is that they need to work at the speed of the preschooler and if the preschooler isn’t interested, then give them something to do along side of the dog, instead of insisting on an interaction they may not be interested in having.

11775734_m
This is a beautiful idyllic image, but this dog could seriously harm the child if he bolted.  Mom and Dad should be holding a second leash!  Image credit: auremar / 123RF Stock Photo

 

5, 6 and seven year old kids are often very interested in dogs.  They may draw the dogs or spend time reading books on dogs independently.  This age group is a group that needs to learn safety rules around dogs and can assist with some of the care of a dog.  They may be able to leash walk a smaller well trained dog, but asking a 6 year old to be responsible for the exercise and feeding of any dog is really more than we should expect.  Kids in this age group can be included in training sessions where the dog already knows the behaviour.  I recently spoke with a Mom on the phone who wanted to be able to drop her six year old and their 7 month old intact male German Shepherd off at my training hall for the hour lesson.  Accepting them in the class would have been completely unrealistic in terms of training the dog or helping the seven year old to be successful with the dog.  When working with kids, it is essential that as the instructor, I set both the dog and the child up for success.  Usually this means training the dog ahead of the child and then including the child in a separate training session where the dog follows the kid’s directions and Mom or Dad assists the child in being successful.

The process of training a dog may be boring for kids if the dog doesn’t know what to do, so make sure that your dog understands what you want and then teach your kid how to make the behaviours happen.  Integrating kids into training is a matter of learning how to make the activity interesting for both your child and your dog.

About two years ago, we had a family with a Springer Spaniel come to class.  This family got it.  Everyone came to the first class.  The two kids, 7 and 9 years old, sat down near Mom and Dad with colouring books and crayons, reading material and video game.  Mom and Dad worked on our down stay exercise and then included the kids in the feeding stage.  They played statues with the kids while the dog learned to stay.  Mom and Dad worked in cooperation with one of them working with the dog and the other helping the kids to be successful.  After the stay, Dad worked on leash manners with the dog and the kids went back to their books and games.  When the dog started to get the hang of it, Mom organized the kids into stations and the dog walked back and forth between the kids, with the kids treating after Dad clicked.  This went on for all eight weeks of the classes; a beautiful dance of dog, kids and parents, working together.  When it works it works really, really well.

As kids get older, they develop better coordination and balance, strength and ability to follow directions.  By the time kids are about ten years old, they can continue work that Mom and Dad have started.  So if the parents are capturing sits, downs, stands and touches, the kids can be in charge of the clicker and the treats.  As the dog gains skills the kids can start working on chains of behaviours with the dog.  The nine to twelve year old group is developing the skills to be able to work more independently but still under direction with Mom or Dad on site.  They still are not able to take on the full responsibility for the dog though; they shouldn’t be asked to take the dog to the vet for instance.

Thirteen is the age are which we accept volunteers at Dogs in the Park in our puppy program.  In Ontario you have to do a certain number of volunteer hours in order to graduate from high school and we are pleased to be able to share our program with teens.  Young teens can be quite competent dog trainers and we allow this age group to handle their own dogs within reason.  If the dog is extremely strong or unruly, then we do not allow them to work unassisted, but if the dog is an appropriate size and temperament we allow this age group to work their own dogs provided that a parent or guardian is on site.  At this age, we love to see the ability of both the dog and the kid begin to shine.  What we don’t allow is kids under 16 to be dropped off and picked up while the child is solely responsible for the dog.  In the event of a veterinary emergency, the child would not be able to drive the dog to the vet clinic for instance.  This is just not appropriate.

Young teens can be very responsible for the family dog.  They can be responsible to feed and exercise the family dog, but parents still need to be aware of this getting done; if it isn’t done, someone needs to notice, because the dog should not take the fall for an error on the part of the child.  Veterinary care and training decisions still need to be made with the parents though; expecting a child to be solely responsible for the dog is unrealistic and unfair to your dog.

20130502_173823_19
Puppy Class is designed to help families to work with their puppies.  Children should not go to puppy class without their parents.

The key with family dogs is to recognize that an adult needs to be responsible for the dog.  We would not expect a child to be responsible for the upbringing of another child including feeding, enrichment, medical care and education.  We should not expect children to be solely responsible for the upbringing and care of a dog either.

WE GOT HIM FOR THE KIDS!